Memory: Multi Store Model

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  • Created by: neleanor
  • Created on: 03-04-15 12:44
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  • Memory: Multi Store Model
    • Miller (1956)
      • Capacity of STM
      • Digit Span Test
        • Series of digits to recall in order.
        • List got progressively longer.
        • Number of digits successfully recalled without mistakes recorded.
      • Majority of participants recalled between 5 and 9 digits
        • Capacity of the STM is 7+-2 pieces of information
          • Can remember more through chunking information
      • EVALUATION
        • Lacks ecological validity-> artificial environment -> can't generalise
        • Applications to real life -> things 5-9 digits like phone numbers
    • Peterson & Peterson (1959)
      • Duration of STM
      • 24 uni students given trigrams to remember
        • Distractor task immediately after to prevent rehearsal
          • Recall of trigram tested after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, & 18 seconds
      • 90% of trigrams recalled after 3 seconds // 2% of trigrams recalled after 18 seconds
      • Without rehearsal information quickly displaced
        • Duration about 20 seconds
      • EVALUATION
        • Lacks ecological validity -> artificial environment -> can't generalise
        • Lacks population validity -> all uni students -> can't generalise
    • Primary-Recency Effect
      • Ebbinghaus
        • List of words read, asked to recall
          • First and last words recalled best
      • Glanzer and Cunitz
        • Distraction task just after list read
          • Recall of last words just as bad as middle words
      • First words remembered due to rehearsal time, last words due to still being in STM
    • Bahrick et al (1975)
      • Duration of VLTM
      • 392 American ex-high school students aged 17-74
        • Recall tested by: 1) Free recall 2) Photo recognition 3) Name recognition 4) Name and photo matching
      • 90% face/name after 34 years, 80% name after 48 years, 40% face after 48 years, 60% free recall after 15 years, 30% free recal after 30 years
      • VLTM exists, retrieval cues better than free recall
      • EVALUATION
        • Few demand characteristics & high ecological validity -> natural experiment -> can generalise
    • Baddeley (1966)
      • How STM and LTM encode
      • Four word lists: 1)Acoustically similar 2)Acoustically dissimilar 3)Semantically similar 4)Semanitcally dissimilar
        • 12 sets of five words from their list, recall words in order
          • Either recalled immediately or after timed delay
      • Recalling immediately most mistakes when acoustically similar (10% correct)
        • Recalling after delay: Most mistakes when semantically similar
      • STM  acoustically LTM semantically
      • EVALUATION
        • High internal validity -> lab experiment -> all variables controlled -> results less effected
        • Low ecological validity -> artificial setting -> can't generalise
    • Clive Wearing- Case Study
      • Contracted Herpes Simplex that attacked his brain which meant he is unable to store new memories or recall old ones
        • Now has almost total amnesia
          • He can't transfer memories from STM to LTM
            • 'Wakes up' every 30 seconds or so
        • Can't remember his children's names
        • Still loves his second wife, but every time he sees her he greets hawe as if they haven't seen each other foryears
        • Can still play the piane and conduct a choir but can't recall his education
          • His procedual memory was not damaged
      • EVALUATION
        • Supports MSM- duration of STM
        • Condraticts MSM- multiple LTM stores
        • Case study -> look at things unable to ethical do otherwise
        • Case study -> only one person -> low population validity -> can't genenralse
    • Sensory: Pay attention to get to -
      • Short Term: Rehearse to get to -
        • Long Term

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