Memory: Eyewitness Testimony (1)

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  • Created by: neleanor
  • Created on: 04-05-15 13:16
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  • Memory: Eyewitness Testimony (1)
    • Age
      • Yarmey (1993)
        • Whether age affects accuracy
        • 651 adults: young (18-29), middle-aged (30-44), older (45-65)
          • Stopped in public places, asked to recall physical characteristics of the women they had just spoken to
        • Young and middle-aged more confident in recall, but no significant differences able to be attributed to age
          • Age doesn't affect accuracy
        • EVALUATION
          • Field experiment
            • Reduces demand characteristics -> more reliable
            • high ecological validity -> can generalise
            • Extraneous variables -> less reliable
          • Large sample size -> high population validity -> can generalise
      • Anastasi & Rhodes (2006)
        • Whether age affects accuracy, own-age bias
        • Three age groups: 18-25, 35-45, 55-78
          • Individuals shown 24 photos over thre age groups, rate each in terms of attractiveness
            • Filler task
              • Then given 48 photos and asked to identify 24 seen before
        • Young & middle-aged most correct, all groups remembered own age best
          • Young & middle-aged more accurate than older
            • Own-age bias exists: all age groups best at remembering own age groups best
        • EVALUATION
          • Lacks ecological validity -> artificial setting -> can't generalise
          • Not all age groups represented
    • Leading Questions
      • Loftus & Palmer (1974) #1
        • Whether leading questions affect recall
        • 45 students, 5 groups of 9 shown video of a car accident and asked speed of cars using deffierent varbs
          • Hit, smashed into, bumped into, made contact, collided
        • Smashed- 40.8 mph, collided- 39.3 mph, bumped- 38.1 mph, hit- 34.0 mph, contacted- 31.8 mph
          • 9mph difference, suggests leading questions affect recall
        • EVALUATION
          • Lacks ecological validity -> artificial setting -> can't generlais
          • Low population validity -> all students -> can't generalise
      • Loftus & Palmer (1974) #2
        • Whether leading questions affect recall
        • 150 students, 3 groups of 50 shown a video of a car accident and asked different questions for each group
          • Group 1: Speed of cars when smashed into each other
          • Group 2: speed of cars when hit each other
          • Group 3: control, not asked about speed
          • Returned a week later and asked if saw any broken glass (no broken glass in film)
        • More said no glass for all, but more of group 1 said yes
          • leading question changed way they recalled video meaning memory is altered
        • EVALUATION
          • lacks ecological validity -> artificial setting -> can't generlaise
          • Lacks population validity -> all students -> can't generalise

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