Memory, forgetting and eyewitness testimonies

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  • Created by: Jack
  • Created on: 02-06-13 14:12
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  • Memory
    • Multi-store model
      • Sensory store (info passes through for less than a second) - very limited storage
      • Encoding --> Storage --> retrieval
      • STUDIES
        • Murdock (1962) - recency + primacy effect
        • Peterson and Peterson (1959) - rehearsal for short-term store
    • Reconstructive memory
      • We change what we actually recall so it makes more sense to us.
        • Explains why different cultures see things differently to each other...
          • ...and also why 2 eyewitnesses can have totally different recollections of the same event.
      • STUDIES
        • Bartlett (1932) - 'War of the Ghosts' story changed with every telling.
          • Unusual story (spirits and ghosts) - harder to remember?
        • Wynn and Logie (1998) - first week of university
          • Familiar memory - more accurate?
    • Levels of processing
      • The depth of our thinking affects how well we can recall info.
      • Structural processing - thinking about how a word looks
        • Phonetic processing - thinking about how a word sounds
          • Semantic processing - thinking about what a word means
      • STUDIES
        • Craiik and Lockhart (1972) - semantic 70%, phonetic 35%, structural 15%.
    • Forgetting
      • Interference
        • Retroactive interference - when new info makes it difficult to recall old info
          • Proactive interference - when old info makes it difficult to store new info.
        • STUDIES
          • Underwood and Postman (1960) - one group learnt 2 lists of words pairs, another only learnt 1.
      • Context
        • Recalling info in the same environment you learnt it in will increase how much you can recall.
        • STUDIES
          • Godden and Baddeley (1975) - underwater scuba divers vs. learning on land (and vice versa)
      • Brain damage
        • Anterograde amnesia - when you can't learn new info after the damage.
          • Retrograde amnesia - when you can't recall info from before the damage.
        • STUDIES
          • Miller (1968) - hippocampus removed
    • Eyewitness testimonies
      • Sometimes no eyewitness is lying when they all have different recollections from the same event due to their memory.
        • STUDIES
          • Loftus and Palmer (1974) - leading questions - smash/hit
          • Bruce and Young (1998) - unfamiliar faces - lecturers students
          • Cohen (1981) - stereotypes affecting memory - photo waitress vs. librarian.
          • Geiselman (1985) - context - recreating crime scene
  • REHEARSAL
    • Short-term store (info passes through for less than a minute) - can hold approximately 7 chunks of info at once.
      • Long-term store (can hold unlimited info for up to a lifetime)
    • Long-term store (can hold unlimited info for up to a lifetime)

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