Models of Memory

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  • MEMORY
    • Working Memory Model (STM)
      • Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
    • Multi-store Memory Model (STM & LTM)
      • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
        • Duration (Time-spand)
          • Peterson & Peterson (1959) Participants hear a list of trigrams (three-letter nonsense words), and then have to count, aloud, backwards in threes for a certain time (the IV in this experiment). Then tested on recall of the trigrams.
        • Encoding (Form)
          • Conrad (1964) and others have shown that coding in STM is typically done acoustically.For example, when asked to remember letters that look similar but sound different (e.g. "D","O"), P's do better than when asked to remember letters that sound the similar but look different (e.g. "B","T").
        • Capacity (Amount)
          • STM has a capacity of seven items. Miller (1956) referred to seven as "the magic number". He showed that people on average could store seven unrelated chunks of information, such as digits in a telephone number or random words, or phrases in a sentence. Chunking - Remembering more information through memorable chunks.
        • Sensory Memory (Short duration store)
        • Short-term Memory (Temporary store)
        • Long-term Memory (Permanent store)
  • Capacity (Amount)
    • STM has a capacity of seven items. Miller (1956) referred to seven as "the magic number". He showed that people on average could store seven unrelated chunks of information, such as digits in a telephone number or random words, or phrases in a sentence. Chunking - Remembering more information through memorable chunks.

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