Memory

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Hema
  • Created on: 25-04-15 19:55
View mindmap
  • MEMORY
    • Multi Store Model
      • Atkinson and Shiffrin outlined a structural, linear model.
      • 3 different, but inter-connected stores:
        • Short Term Memory: Cap:5-9items Dur:18-30sec Enc:acoustic
        • Sensory Store
        • Long Term Memory: Cap:unlimited Dur: lifetime En: semantic
      • Unitary: each of the stores can process all types of information, but only one type at once.
      • can retrieve from LTM to STM
      • Lost through displacement, decay or retrieval problems
      • STRENGTH: Beardsley - brain scans show different areas of brain active when STM used (pre-frontal cortex) and LTM used: hippocampusshows separate stores
      • WEAKNESS: MSM doesn't explain 'flashbulb memories' - don't need rehearsal, significant memories directly imprint on the LTM
      • WEAKNESS: MSM fails to explain how memory is affected by head injury- KF motorcycle accident, verbal digit span- 2, Visual and LT memory remained intact. shows must be in separate places
    • Short Term Memory
      • Capacity
        • digit span : PPs hear/read list random digits + serial recall start at 4 go up until can't  recall all
        • Jacobs: capacity of STMis limited to 5-9items + new info pushes out old, displace
        • Miller: capacity is 7+/-2items (magic number 7) applied to words too but can be increased by chunking
      • Duration
        • Peterson & Peterson - pps presented with trigrams, serial recall after 3,6,9,12,15, 18 seconds. count back in 3s to interfere
        • found that after 3secs=80% 18secs=10% accuracy but some=30sec
        • in conclusion- duration of the STM is 18-30second
      • Encoding
        • Baddley aimed to explore the effects of acoustic and semantic encoding on STM + LTM
        • STM- pps recall immediately after 5 words either: ac sim ac dissim, sem sim, sem dissimilar
        • acoustically similar words were harder to recall in STM than acoustically dissimilar
        • semantic similar word had little effect on STM
        • STM relies heavily on Acoustic encoding
    • Long term Memory
      • Bahrik aimed to investigate the duration of VERY LTM
      • 392 American, ex-high school students aged 17-74
      • Recall tested in 4 ways:
        • 1. Name recognition of as many former classmates
        • 2. Photo recognition to dentify from 50 photos
        • 3. Name recognition test
        • 4. Name + Photo match up
      • Name matching = after 14yrs:90% 47yrs:60%accurate
      • recognition group after: 7yrs:60% 47yrs:20%
      • classmates are rarely forgotten, cues are needed sometimes. also recognition was better that recall
    • Working Memory Model
      • Baddley & Hitch created a memory model where the STM is an active storemade up of a number of components
        • CENTRAL EXECUTIVE: problem-solving, decision making, controlling attention, planning limited storage capacity
        • PHONOLOGICAL LOOP: temporarily holds speech based sounds and has two parts
          • Phonological Store: (inner ear) stores auditor + 2second capacity
          • Articulatory system: (inner voice) converts written info into sound + enables sub-vocal rehersal
        • VISUO-SPATIAL SKETHPAD: converts written/sound info into mental images, enables us to visualise layouts/ distances
        • EPISODIC BUFFER: combines everything (sound + images)
      • STRENTH: Explains KF case study - couldhold visual but not verbal info in his STM - must be in different places - supports WMM
      • WEAKNESS: exact limits of the central executive are unknown - theres little evidence to fully understand CE - main component
      • WEAKNESS: Berz pointed out we are able to perform two acoustic tasks at once (listen to music, listen to a converstion) phon loops capacity is 2secs : so info would be displaced if WMM is correct
    • Eyewitness Testimony
      • Anxiety: Loftus
        • field exp
        • pps told to wit outside before study
        • 1.overheard conversation about equipment faiure - came out holding pen in grease 2. overheard hostile argument - emerged holding knife in blood
        • asked to identify man from 50 photos
        • pen- more accurate loftus said anxiety caused by the weapon narrowed focus of attention + forgot peripheral details
        • STRENGTH Defenbacher: meta analysis of 18 studies of effects of anxiety on EWT. EWT was impaired if became too anxious.
        • WEAKNESS: Christianson- natural exp. 110 pps witnessed real robbery. accuracy remained high despite anxiety
      • Age
        • Loftus found that elderly people are more likely to make false identifications and worse at remembering specific details
        • Cohen + Faulkner showed 2 groups same film of kidnapping - 1. mean age of 70 2.average age of 35 - elderly people gave more inaccurate responses than youngr +more influenced
        • Poole + Lindsey: showed kids3-8 science demo, parents read story bits added to demo - when asked, young children they included bits of the story. but older kids didn't. post event info effects childrens EWT
        • WEAKNESS: sample from elderly people's homes may have reduced memory - not representative cant generalise findings
        • Robert + Lamb: interviewers misinterpreted 68/191 abuse allegations of kids. 2/3 of innacuracies went uncorrected - fear of authority - childrens EWT are inaccurate + unreliable
        • WEAKNESS: most of these studies are lab exp. don't reflect real life because of artificial settings so low ecological validity
      • Misleading Information: Loftus + Palmer
        • the verb used implies a particular speed + may sway pps
        • critical question: About how fast were the cars going when they (smashed, hit,collided, bumped, contacted) eachother?
        • found - Mean speed estimate: smashed40.8contacted31.8
        • 45 students, lab exp., 5 groups of 9, shown 7 films of traffic accident, given questionnaire
        • Aim: to investigate if leading questions affect the accuracy of immediate recall
        • 2ND STUDY: 3groups, 1+2 asked about speed - 1=smashed 2=hit 3=speed not asked for. group 1 most likely to say saw broken glass
        • Post event information effects EWT
        • STRENGTH: Lab exp, high control over ex variables, same videos of acciedent for each group - high internal validity
        • WEAKNESS: Loftus used her own students - demand charcteristics - want to help - low validity
    • Cognitive interview
      • Changing Perspective: recall incident from different perspectives, e.g. how would it appear to a different EW                                        access memories through multiple pathways
      • Report Everything: every detail even if it seems irrelevant - may be relevant                                 irrelevant details may serve as retrieval cues
      • Reverse Order: alternative ways through the timeline e.g. from incident backwards                           different routes to increase accuracy
      • Context Reinstatment: Mentally reinstate - (e.g. weather, emotions)                                improves memory because it provides retrieval cues
      • STRENGTH:GEISELMAN ET AL - investigate effectiveness of cog int. compared to other methods
        • pps saw a violent crime and aftter 48 hours were interviewed by police using either cog int, stan int or hypnosis
        • average no. of correctly recalled facts for cog int:41.2, for hypn:38 for stand: 29.4
        • conclusion: cognitive interview leads to more accurate recall of events
      • WEAKNESS: Lack of protection from harm - to mentally re-live potentially traumatic events
    • memory strategies
      • METHOD OF LOCI: to link previously unrelated objects using visual locations, associate different items with different locations on a familiar journey
      • Memory Organisation: items classified into catagories. catagories act as retrieval cues
      • ACRONYM: where a word or sentence is formed from the initial letters of other words - retrieval cues
      • ACROSTIC: poem or sentence where the first letter of each word represents an item of a list
      • Deep Processing- semantic processing leads to enhanced recall, involves elaborative thinking, think around an idea and link to other ideas.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Memory resources »