Memory

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  • Memory
    • Multi-store model
      • Sensory memory
        • This holds information that your thinking about for seconds
          • Can only hold visual or acoustic information
      • Short term memory
        • This holds small amounts of information that you are currently thinking about
          • This can only hold encoded information that's either acoustic, semantic or visual
            • Baddeley- read aloud sub vocally numbers and found short term memory is strengthened through echoic store
            • Miller- Chunking most people can remember between 5-9 items
              • Peterson/Peterson- created trigrams of 3 digit numbers and found that 90% could be remembered after 3 seconds and only 5% after 18 seconds.
      • Long-term memory
        • This holds information that you can remember for a whole lifetime
          • Can only hold semantically encoded information for up to the individuals lifespan.
            • Baddeley- read sub vocal numbers but this time left them for 20 minutes before asking for recall. He found that it was more difficult
              • Wegner- kept a diary of 2,400 events that happened within his lifetime and was able to recall them
                • Bahrick- showed people old school photographs- most recently left people remembered 90% of faces and older people remembered more faces than names
    • Working memory model
      • Central executive
        • Controls where each type of information is stored
          • Baddeley- Participants to generate random strings on a keyboard whilst doing another task. He found that the person found it difficult to do both things due to the use of two different parts of the brain at the same time
      • Phonological loop
        • Auditory information
          • Baddeley participants recalled short word more when they were in serial order without any other words being introduced
      • Visuo-spacial sketchpad
        • Stores both visual and spacial information
          • Gather Cole/Baddeley- participants had to follow a moving laser light and describe the angles of the letter F. He found it was too difficult and the VSS had 2 separate slave systems.
    • Eyewitness testimony
      • Anxiety
        • Christian and hubinette- real witnesses from bank robberies, recalled information after 15 months where anxiety didn't change the recall
        • Johnson and Scott- male arguments (pen and knife)
        • Unethical
      • Age
        • Coxon and valentine- children, young adults and old people questions with misleading information about a video they watched. Older people did better- 70+ have better eye witness testimony
          • LOW ecological validity
        • Ceci/buck- children change there minds if they believe something they are saying it wrong
      • Misleading information
        • Providing eye witnesses with information that may cause them to give the wrong answer
        • Loftus and palmer - car accident and glass
          • real world application
    • Cognitive interview
      • Changed perspective
        • describe each event as though you are someone else involved- victim
      • Report everything
        • every single detail is relevant
      • Context reinstatement
        • recall everything from the scene- even the weather
      • Reverse order
        • describe each event from the ending to the beginning
      • Loci method
        • planning an everyday route that you take with items or words that you need to remember
      • It works better than police usually ones as it stimulates more detail
        • It's expensive
        • may reduce children's accuracy of eye witness testimony
  • Auditory information
    • Baddeley participants recalled short word more when they were in serial order without any other words being introduced

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