Psycholgy specification A- AS Unit 1 Memory whole topic

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  • Memory- AS Level Psychology
    • Models Of Memory
      • Multi-Store Model
        • Sensory Memory--> STM--> LTM
        • Transfers from Sensory to STM through Attention.
        • Transfers from STM to LTM through Rehearsal
        • SOMETIMES info rehearsed but not remembered. Sometimes only happens once and is.
        • Reductionist. Suggests only one store for STM and One Store for LTM - been disproved by brain damaged patients like KF.
        • Supported by Primacy Recency Effect.
        • Korsakoff's Syndrome - Unaffected STM but affected LTM -Shows different stores
      • Working Memory Model
        • CENTRAL EXECUTIVE
          • Manages the Daughter Cells and where information goes.
        • Articulatory Phonological Loop
          • Acts as the minds inner ear and inner voice. Auditory Store
        • Visuo Spatial Sketchpad
          • Inner sketchpad, visual. often used for arithmetic.
        • Episodic Buffer
          • Relays Information Between Central Executive and two daughter Stores.
        • KF was brain damaged, affected visual, unaffected verbal.
    • Eye Witness Testimonies
      • Age
        • Valentine and Coxon
          • 3 groups -Children, Young Adults and Elderly
          • Watched video of kidnapping
          • Then asked series of leading and non leading questions
          • Children and Elderly gave most amount of inaccurate information to non leading questions
          • Children most easily led
      • Anxiety
        • Loftus
          • two groups - independent measures
          • Both over heard a converssation happening in a room with closed doors
          • First condition man waalked out with a pen and greasy hands, second condition man walked out with a knife and blood on his hands.
          • Condition 1 49% accurate identifying man
          • Condition two only 33% accurate dentifying man
      • Leading Questions
        • Loftus and Palmer
          • hit, bumped, contacted, collided smashed
          • Highest estimated speed with smashed.
          • Did the glass break? - Smashed: Yes Contacte: No.
      • Cognitive interview
        • Developed by Gieselman to increase the accuracy of EWT
          • Process
            • Witness feels relaxed and language tailored to individual
            • Asked to recreate environmental and internal context
            • Asked to reall EVERYTHING  no matter how insignificant it might seem
            • Asked to change the order of events
            • asked to change the perspective
            • Interviewer avoids any judgemental and personal comments
          • Gieselman (1986)
    • Mneumonics
      • Method of Loci.
      • Peg-Word Technique
      • Accrostics
      • Narrative-Story
        • Bower and Clark (1969)
        • Synoptic link - links with information reaching LTM through rehearsal.
    • STM and LTM
      • STM
        • DURATION
          • 18-30 seconds
            • Peterson and Peterson-Trigrams
        • ENCODING
          • Accoustically
            • Baddeley - Accoustically simmilar words better remembered than accoustic in Short Term.
        • CAPACITY
          • 7+/-2 items
            • Jacobs (1887) - Letter/digits strings.
      • LTM
        • ENCODING
          • Semantically
            • Baddeley - Semantically linked words more easily remembered after 20 minutes
        • DURATION
          • Up to a lifetime.
            • Bahrick - Ex classmates
        • CAPACITY
          • Unlimited

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