Multi-store model

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  • Capacity
    • LTM capacity, duration and encoding
      • Duration
        • Aim: To investigate the duration of LTM
        • Method: Ppts were 392 graduates aged between 17 and 74 years and the time since their graduation varied from two weeks to 57 years
          • Researchers selected 130 pictures from each of their yearbooks to use in the various experimental conditions
            • These were free recall of names, recognition of names, recognition of pictures, matching pictures to names, matching names to pictures and naming pictures
        • Conclusion: LTM may last a lifetime, but whether we can access it is highly dependent on the circumstances in which we try to remeber- recognition was far superior to recall
          • Evaluation: Control of EV's eg how often ppts looked at their yearbooks or met up with old classmates was difficult= large scale study
            • Unclear why the oldest age group's performance in some conditions dropped. These memories could have reached the end of their lifespan or unaccessible due to age
      • Encoding
        • Aim: To investigate encoding in LTM
        • Method: Over 70 young servicemen, divided into 4 different groups, underwent trials where they were briefly presented with the same 5 words but the order of the words was changed each time
          • Task was to write down the words in the correct oder
            • group 1: acoustically similar,   group 2: acoustically dissimilar, group 3: semantically similar,  group 4: semantically dissimilar
        • Findings: recall for acoustically similar and dissimilar words did not differ but recall for semantically similar words dropped to 55% accuracy
    • Unlimited capacity and there is evidence to suggest that the vast information stored in the LTM is organised
    • Different ideas as to how the info is organised (hierarchically, in networks and as schemas)
  • Findings: Free recall accuracy dropped steadily from 50% at three months after graduation to 20% after 40+ years
    • Duration
      • Aim: To investigate the duration of LTM
      • Method: Ppts were 392 graduates aged between 17 and 74 years and the time since their graduation varied from two weeks to 57 years
        • Researchers selected 130 pictures from each of their yearbooks to use in the various experimental conditions
          • These were free recall of names, recognition of names, recognition of pictures, matching pictures to names, matching names to pictures and naming pictures
      • Conclusion: LTM may last a lifetime, but whether we can access it is highly dependent on the circumstances in which we try to remeber- recognition was far superior to recall
        • Evaluation: Control of EV's eg how often ppts looked at their yearbooks or met up with old classmates was difficult= large scale study
          • Unclear why the oldest age group's performance in some conditions dropped. These memories could have reached the end of their lifespan or unaccessible due to age
  • Accuracy for recognition of names and pictures and matching of names and pictures was high (85-90%) for all intervals dropping to 75% only in the oldest age group
    • Findings: Free recall accuracy dropped steadily from 50% at three months after graduation to 20% after 40+ years
      • In the picture naming condition, at 3 months after graduation there was 70% accuracy, dropping to 60% after 15 years and 40+ years
    • Whereas semantically dissimilar words were recalled with 85% accuracy
      • Findings: recall for acoustically similar and dissimilar words did not differ but recall for semantically similar words dropped to 55% accuracy
      • Conclusion: LTM suffers more from semantic confusion than acoustic confusion and therefore semantic encoding is dominant  in LTM

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