Memory mind map

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  • Memory
    • Duration of STM: 20 seconds (peterson and peterson, 3 digits 3 letters, count backwards from them, after 3 seconds, recall was 80%, after 18 seconds recall was 3%, this suggests that STM has a duration of less than 18 seconds if verbal rehearsal is prevented.
      • Capacity of STM: 7 items +/- 2 (Miller found this and says that chunking is used to increase capacity, Jacobs found that the mean span for digits is 9.3 and for letters 7.3, Simon found that more syllables= shorter span, the size of the chunk matters). Capacity of LTM: unlimited,
        • Encoding: Visual (the way it looks, acoustic (the way it sounds) and semantic (what it means). Info arrives at your sensory memory as a sound, image or feeling, in general STM seems to use acoustic coding and LTM uses semantic. Baddeley concluded that encoding differs between STM and LTM. Brandimore et al concluded that encoding was visual and STM coding was not always acoustic, Lastly Frost concluded STM coding is visual.
          • A02: Duration of STM: (Nairne et al) participants relied on the fact they would be questioned afterwards so made sure they remembered, when they didn't expect to be asked, forgetting occured after 2 seconds, this study lacks ecological validity as its done in a lab it can't be applied to a natural setting.
            • A02: Capacity of STM: (Cowan and Baddeley), Cowan concluded that STM limits to 4 chunks, may not be as extensive as first thought, Baddeley was influential in the development of the postcode, helps remember things. Encoding: some experiments have shown that visual codes are also used in STM. STM: Brandimore et al, LTM: Frost.
      • Duration of LTM: 2 hours- 100 years (Bahrick used school photos and tested them on graduate students 34 years after they left, face recognition was 90% accurate after 15 years, declined to 70% after 48 years, due to age)
    • The Multi -Store model: (Attkinson and Shiffrin)- The sensory store, STM and LTM, (learn the diagram).
      • The sensory store: to do with senses, if you pay attention to this info it will go to STM, if you don't it will decay or be replaced. STM: info here will decay quick if not payed attention to, and will also disappear if new info enters as there is a limited capacity. LTM: info from STM needs to be rehearsed to be in the LTM, the more rehearsed the better the memory (maintenance rehearsal)
        • Research: Sperling looked at the limited duration of sensory store and concluded that info decays rapidly in the sensory store. Glanzer and Gunitz gave participants a list of 20 words one at a time, they concluded people remembered the words from the start (primacy effect) and the end (recency effect) and not the middle, PET and fMRI scans can be used to take images of the active brain to see what region is active when doing a particular task.
          • The prefrontal cortex is active when individuals work on an STM task (Beardsley). The hippocampus  is active when LTM  is engaged (squire et al). HH Scoville and Miller has his hippocampus removed on both sides to reduce severe epilepsy, he couldn't form new long term memories though could remember things before the surgery.
            • A02: + lots of evidence to support the MSM, it does explain memory in terms of structure and processes, lab studies mean you can control for extraneous variables. - Reductionist, it over simplifies memory structures and processes, LTM and STM does not always work in a single uniform fashion, the case study of KF (shallice and warrington supports this), the supporting evidence lacks validity as they include students studying psychology,, the MSM suggests that STM is involved before the LTM relies on LTM so cannot come first.
    • The Working memory model: (Baddeley and Hitch)- Central executive, phonological loop, visuo- spatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer was added after.
      • Episodic Buffer:  Baddeley added this as a general store in 2000, its an extra storage system which has a limited capacity. It integrates info from the central executive, phonological loop and visuo- spatial sketchpad and also from LTM. (learn diagram)
        • Central executive: key component to WMM, function is to direct attention to particular tasks, info comes from LTM or sensory store,very limited capacity, can't attend too many things at once.
          • Phonological loop: also has a limited capacity, it deals with auditory info and preserves the order of info, has 2 sub components; Phonological store (inner ear)= holds the sounds/words you hear. Articulatory process (inner voice)= words maintained by repetition which are heard or seen.
            • Visuo-spatial sketchpad: used when you have to plan a spatial task, visual and/or spatial  info is temporarily stored here. spatial info is the relationship between things e,g throwing paper into the bin, Logie  suggested that the visuo-spatial sketch pad can be divided into a visual cache (store) and inner scribe which deals with spatial relations.
              • A02: + effectively accounts for ability to store info briefly whilst processing the material, Evidence from brain damaged patients supports the view that there are separate systems, word length effect (Baddeley et al). - The link between the WMM and LTM is not fully explained, what exactly is the central executive? (Richardson), the use of brain damaged patients is critical as there is no way to assess before and after.
    • Eye witness testimony (EWT):  Misleading questions- Loftus and palmer (speeding car with the words crash, hit,bump, collided etc) 2 experiments, concluded that  'smashed' produced the highest estimate and 'contacted' was lowest, in 2nd experiment higher speed estimate for 'smashed', twice as many participants reported glass in 'smashed' group than other groups, this shows that memory is distorted by misleading info.
      • Anxiety: Deffenbacher  et al conducted a meta analysis which showed that anxiety reduced the accuracy of EWT, Christianson and Hubinette said anxiety increased accuracy in real-life bank robberies, and the weapon focus effect was by Johnson and Scott. (refer to poster).
        • A02:  Contradiction explained by Yerkes- dodson law, Meta analysis (stebly) supports weapon focus effect, Loftus et al tracked eye movements to support weapon- focus effect
      • Age of witness: Parker and caranza said that children make more errors, also Yarmey said that younger participants are more confident but no age differences, Lastly, Memon et al concluded that older less accurate when delay was one week.
        • AO2:  own age bias (anastasi and rhodes), Due to differential experience.
      • Cognitive interview (C1): 1: Report everything, 2: Recreate original context, 3: change order 4: change perspective (Fisher and Geiselman)
        • A02: Geiselman tested participants showing them videos of simulated crime scene, Fisher et al CI technique in real police settings in Miami, Milne and Bull- report everything and mental reinstatement give best recall, Police officers have suggested that this technique requires a lot of time, not all police use CI's.
    • Strategies for memory improvement:  Visual imagery-Method of Loci (house), mind maps, spider diagrams. Verbal- Acronyms, acrostic, rhymes, chunking.
      • 4 main mnemonics: Organisation of material into categories, Visual imagery (method of loci), chunking,  organisation with understanding and meaning.
        • A02: + Gruneberg acrostics and acronyms being the most popular for students, Broadly and Macdonald found that memory strategy techniques can help memory defects in children with down syndrome found that those who received the training had significantly  better memory recall, Paivio stated that double encoding increases the likelihood of accurate recall and is known as the dual coding hypothesis. - Low ecological validity of research and the stimuli presented.


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