Memory

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  • Memory
    • Multi-Store
      • Sensory
        • Very Limited
          • Under a Second
      • Short-Term
        • 7+/- 2 Chunks
          • 0-18 Seconds
      • Long-Term
        • Unlimited
          • Unlimited
      • Murdock (1962)
        • Aim
          • Investigate free recall and its effect on memory
        • Method
          • 1. Participants given a list of words
          • 2. Given free recall
        • Results
          • Words at end recalled best
            • Recency Effect
          • Words at start recalled quite well
            • Primacy Effect
          • Middle words were forgotten
        • Conclusion
          • Memorise first words as they were rehearsed
        • Evaluation
          • Learn things without rehearsing them
          • Laboratory experiment so can be repeated to check results
        • Practical Implications
          • Chunking can be used to help us remember things
          • Can chunk information and rehearse it until we understand it
    • Levels of Processing
      • Structural
        • Appearance
        • Weakest level of processing
        • 15%  Recall
      • Phonetic
        • Sound
        • 35%  Recall
      • Semantic
        • Meaning
        • Deepest level of processing
        • 70%  Recall
      • Aim
        • Does the type of  question asked affect the number of words remembered
      • Method
        • 1. Participants given a list of words, one at a time
        • 2. Asked questions about them. Had to answer yes or no
        • 3.  Questions required different types of processing
      • Conclusion
        • Recall is better when you understand what it means
      • Practical Implications
        • Producing mindmap summaries is a good way of processing deeply
        • Making revision notes helps. They are in chunks so can be easily processed
      • Evaluation
        • Further studies support link between deep processing and memory
        • Doesn't explain how deeper processing results in better memory
    • Flow
      • Encoding
        • Changing Info
      • Storage
        • Holding Info
      • Retrieval
        • Recovering
    • Forgetting
      • Context
        • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
          • Aim
            • Will people recall more information when tested in different environments?
          • Method
            • 1. Tested 4 groups of deep sea divers on the same list of words
            • Group 1 - Learned and recalled underwater
            • Group 2 - Learned underwater/ recalled on shore
            • Group 3 - Learned and recalled on shore
            • Group 4 - Learned on shore/ recalled underwater
          • Conclusion
            • They did better as they were in the same environment
          • Results
            • Groups 1 and 3 recalled 40% more words
          • Practical Implications
            • Resemble the learning environment as best you can
      • Inteference
        • Proactive
          • Stored information interferes with recent information
        • Retroactive
          • Recent information interferes with the previous
        • Underwood and Postman (1960)
          • Results
            • Group B's recall was more accurate
          • Method
            • 1. Got control groups (A and B)
            • 2. Group A asked to learn a list of word pairs. Then asked to learn another list
            • 3. Group B only asked to learn the first list
            • 4. After, they both had to recall the first list
          • Conclusion
            • Retroactive interference is worse when there is a stronger similarity between new and old information
          • Aim
            • Does new learning interfere with previous learning?
          • Practical Implications
            • Avoid studying similar subjects in an evening
      • Amnesia
        • Retrograde
          • Unable to remember events before damage
        • Anterograde
          • Unable to learn new information after damage
    • Reconstructive
      • Bartlett (1932)
        • Aim
          • People use existing knowledge to understand new information
        • Results
          • Participants changed the sections they didn't understand
        • Conclusion
          • Our beliefs influence how we remember things
        • Method
          • 1. Gave participants a story "The War of the Ghosts"
          • 2. Over the weeks, they had to retell the story
        • Evaluation
          • Isn't similar to everyday experiences
          • Difficult to measure accuracy of stories
        • Practical Implications
          • Helps us understand why people who recall same event have different versions of a story
    • Eye Witness Testimony
      • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
        • Aim
          • Effect of leading questions
        • Method
          • 1. 3 groups (1 control group)
          • 2. Watched a film of a traffic accident and asked the same questions except at speed
          • 3. Changed question to "How fast were the cars going when they hit/smashed the other car?"
          • 4. Control group not asked
        • Results
          • Verb smashed = faster (41mph)
          • Verb hit = 34mph
        • Conclusion
          • Memory influenced by questions asked
        • Practical Implications
          • Avoid leading questions
        • Evaluation
          • Laboratory experiment so can be repeated
          • Lacks ecological validity as you are watching a film
  • Results
  • 2. Group A asked to learn a list of word pairs. Then asked to learn another list

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