MEMORY - Types of long-term memory

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  • Types of long-term memory
    • Types of memory
      • explicit (unconscious)
        • episodic
        • semantic
      • implicit (unconscious)
        • procedural
    • Episodic memory
      • specific personal events and their context eg. birthdays
      • strength of the memory influenced by emotions felt at the time the memory was coded
      • helps individs to distinguish between real and imagined memories
      • brain areas
        • prefrontal cortex associated with initial coding of episodic memory
        • neocortex associated with strenghtening of memory
        • different events located in different visual, auditory etc areas of brain but connected in hippocampus
      • HERLITZ - Swedish females performed better on tasks requiring episodic memories than males
      • Evaluation (A03)
        • unclear how far the episodic and semantic memory systems differ
        • episodic memory may differ from semantic memory in terms of diff types of thinking and emotion
          • episodic = conscious awareness of events and emotions related to them
          • semantic = objective analysis of phenomena
    • Semantic memory
      • LTM for meanings, understandings and other concept based knowledge
      • contains all knowledge (facts, meanings etc) but not where they where learnt
      • strength of memory is dependent of amount of processing done at coding
      • sem mems are more sustained over time than ep mems
      • brain areas
        • coding done in frontal and temporal lobes
        • disagreement: some think hippocampus , others think usage of several brain areas
      • VICARI - CL, an 8 yr old with brain damage couldn't create new ep mems but could recall sem ones. Suggests ep and sem mems use diff brain areas
      • Evaluation (A03)
        • sem mem may involve a network of associated links in diff brain areas. Some links may be easier to access, so some memories may be easier to recall than others
        • brain damage cases support -> diff areas of the brain have diff mem abilities
    • Procedural memory
      • LTM for the performance of an action with little conscious thought eg. riding a bike
      • many pro mems occur in early life involving learning of important motor skills: walking dressing etc
      • involved in language - helps people speak automatically and using grammar without thinking
      • brain areas
        • neocortex brain areas and doesn't need hippocampus to function
      • FINKE - brain damage case, PM, damaged his episodic and semantic mem, but could still rread and play music
      • Evaluation (A03)
        • lack of research to determine brain areas associated with pro mem
        • pro mems take longer to learn than explicit mem. May be due to pro mem requiring motor and spatial abilities


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