Memory

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  • Memory
    • 1. Short and Long Term Memory
      • Short term memory
        • memory for immediate events, STMs are measured in seconds and minute.
        • Capacity: limited capacity- Jacobs(1887) STM has a limited capacity of 5-9 items. Miller(1956)- magic number 7+/-2
          • Evaluation: capacity of STM may be more limited(Cowan, 2001), individual differences(Jacobs), the size of chunks matters(Simon, 1974)
        • Duration:short duration- Peterson and Peterson(1959), less than 18 seconds
          • Evaluation: testing STM was artificial, STM results may be due to displacement(Reitman, 1974)
        • Encoding: acoustic (Baddeley)
          • Evaluation- STM may not be exclsuively acoustic-Brandimote et al(1992)
      • Long term memory
        • memory for events that have happened in the past.
        • Capacity:unlimited
        • Duration: potentially unlimited range of minutes-years(Bahrick et al, 1975)
        • Encoding: semantic(Baddeley)
          • Evaluation: LTM may not be exclusively semantic-Frost(1972), Nelson and Rothbart(1972)
    • 2. The Multi-Store Model of Memory
      • Sensory Register
        • Coding in the SR
          • echoic store=auditory info, iconic store=visual info, haptic=tactile info, gustatory=taste info, olfactory=smell
            • research support-Crowder (1993)
        • Capacity-large: Sperling(1960)
        • Duration of the SR-limited duration: Walsh and Thompson(1978)
      • STM- info held here used for immediate tasks, limited capacity
      • Maintenance rehearsal-repetition
      • LTM
      • Retrieval
      • Evaluation
        • the MSM is too simple-Shallice and Warrington(1970)
        • it is questioned whether maintenance rehearsal is sufficient to create LTM-Craik and Tulving
        • how separate are STM and LTM-Ruchkin et al(2003)
    • 3. The Working Memory Model
      • Baddeley and Hitch(1974)
      • 1. Central executive
        • directs attention to particular tasks, limited capacity
      • 2. Phonological loop
        • phonological store-stores acoustically coded items-inner ear
        • articulatory process-silently repeats words heard or seen-inner voice-form of maintenance rehearsal
        • deals with auditory info, limited capacity
      • 3. Visuo-spatial sketchpad
        • used to plan a spatial task, visual info=what things look like, spatial=physical relationship between things
          • Logie(1995)
            • visual cache-stores info about visual items
            • inner scribe-deals with spatial relations which stores arrangement of objects in the  visual field
      • 4. Episodic Buffer
        • added by Baddeley(2000)-general store, integrates info from the central executive, the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad
      • Evaluation
        • dual task performance-Hitch and Baddeley(1976)
        • Evidence from brain damaged patients-Shallice and Warrington(1970)
    • 4. Types of Long Term Memory
      • Implicit
        • Procedural memory
          • memory for how to do things e.g riding a bike, driving, swim etc., acquired through repetition and practice
          • AO3: associated with the cerebellum, basal ganglia and limbic system
      • Explicit
        • Semantic memory
          • shared memories for facts and knowledge, relate to a) things b)behaviour c)abstract concepts e.g maths and lang.
          • AO3: associated with the temporal lobe
        • Episodic memory
          • personal memories of events, 3 elements: specific details of event, the context and emotion
          • AO3: associated with the hippocampusand other parts of the temporal lobe, associated with the frontal lobe
      • Evaluation
        • distinguishing procedural and declarative memories- case study of HM
        • distinguishing episodic and semantic memories-Hodges and Patterson(2007)
        • evidence from brain damaged patients
    • 5. Explanations for forgetting: Interference
      • Proactive interference
        • Research-Underwood(1957)
      • Retroactive interference
        • Research-Muller and Pilzecker(1900)
      • similarity of test materials-McGeoch and McDonald(1931)
      • Evaluation
        • artificial research
        • interference only explains some situations of forgetting
        • are interference effects just temporary?-Cesaro(1967)
    • 6. Explanations for forgetting: Retrieval Failure
      • Cued Recall
      • The encoding specificity principle-Tulving and Thomson(1973), Tulving and Pearlstone(1966)
      • Context-dependent forgetting-Abernethy(1940), Godden and Baddeley(1975)
      • State-dependent forgetting-Goodwin et al(1969)
      • Evaluation
        • research support
        • real world application-Smith 1979
        • Retrieval cues do not always work
    • 7. Accuracy of EWT: Misleading information
      • leading questions
        • Key research-Loftus and Palmer(1974)
          • Loftus and Palmer(1974)-The Broken Glass Study
      • post event discussion
        • Key Research: Gabbert et al(2003)
      • Evaluation
        • Research support for the broken glass  study-Braun et al, 2002
          • EWT generally inaccurate, unreliable-Foster et al, 1994, Yuille and Cutshall(1986)
      • repeat interviewing-LaRooy et al 2005
    • 8. Accuracy of EWT: Anxiety
      • stress has a negative effect on accuracy
        • Johnson and Scott(1976)-Weapon focus effect
      • Anxiety has a positive effect
        • Christianson and Hubinette(1993)
      • Evaluation
        • weapon focus effect may be caused by surprise and not by anxiety-Pickel(1998)
        • real life vs lab studies
        • Individual differences-Bothwell et al(1987)
    • 9. Improving the accuracy of EWT: The Cognitive Interview
      • 1. mental reinstatement
        • 2. Report everything
        • 3. Change the order
        • 4. Change the perspective
      • Evaluation
        • useful in improving interview techniques in Brazil
        • not all these same  procedures are used
        • takes longer to complete than the traditional interview technique

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