Memory

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  • Memory
    • Coding, capacity, duration
      • LTM
        • Coding: Semantic
          • Baddeley (1966) Words
            • Didn't use meaningful material
        • Capacity: Unlimited
        • Duration: Up to a lifetime
          • Bahrick (1975) Yearbook
            • High external validity - meaningful
      • STM
        • Capacity: 9.3 numbers, 7.3 letters OR 7 +/- 2
          • Jacobs (1987) Digits
            • Conducted a long time ago
          • Miller (1956) *7* - chunking
            • Over-estimated capacity of STM
        • Duration: 18-30 seconds
          • P&P (1959) YCG, count back in 3's
            • Artificial stimulus - lacked external validity
        • Coding: Acoustic
          • Baddeley (1966) Words
            • Didn't use meaningful material
    • MSM
      • 1. Sensory register           2. STM store   3. LTM store
        • Research supports difference between STM and LTM
        • More than one type of STM
        • Research uses artificial materials
        • Oversimplifies LTM
    • Types of LTM
      • Episodic
        • Case study evidence
      • Semantic
      • Procedural
      • Brain scan studies show difference
      • Real-life application
      • Problems with clinical evidence
    • WMM (B&H)
      • CE
        • Lack of clarity
      • PL
        • Word-length effect
      • VSS
        • Dual task performance studies
      • EB
      • KF
      • Brain scan studies
    • Forgetting
      • Proactive interference
        • McGeoch & McDonald (1931) - Interference strongest when memories are similar
          • Evidence from lab studies - high validity
          • Artificial materials
          • Time allowed between learning too short in lab studies.
        • Overcome using cues - Tulving
        • Real-life study by B&H in support - rugby teams
      • Retroactive interference
        • McGeoch & McDonald (1931) - Interference strongest when memories are similar
          • Evidence from lab studies - high validity
          • Artificial materials
          • Time allowed between learning too short in lab studies.
        • Overcome using cues - Tulving
        • Real-life study by B&H in support - rugby teams
      • Retrieval failure
        • Due to absence of cues
          • Only effects memory when testing recall rather than cognition
          • Real-life application e.g. cognitive interview
        • Godden and Baddeley (1975) - Context-dependent forgetting
          • Supporting evidence - Eysenck
          • Context effects not strong in real-life - Baddeley
    • EWT
      • Misleading information
        • Leading questions - Loftus & Palmer (1974)
          • Real-life application e.g. police interview
          • Artificial materials
          • Individual differences e.g. old vs young
          • Demand character-istics
        • PED - Gabbert (2003)
          • Individual differences e.g. old vs young
          • Demand character-istics
      • Anxiety
        • Johnson & Scott (1976) negative effect
          • Tests surprise not anxiety
          • Ethical issues
        • Yuille & Cutshall (1986) positive effect
          • Field studies lack control of variables
        • Inverted-U & Catastrophe theories
      • Cognitive interview
        • 1. Report everything      2. Reinstate context           3. Reverse order              4. Change perspective
          • Some elements useful, especially 1 and 2 - Bull
          • Enhanced CI - Fisher (1987)
            • Meta-analysis supporting evidence - Kohnken
            • Time-consuming
          • Time-consuming
          • 61% increase in inaccurate information

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