Approaches

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  • Created by: Elina
  • Created on: 22-04-18 18:56
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  • Approaches
    • Behaviourist Approach
      • Assumptions
        • All behaviour is learned from experience and therefore can be changed
    • Social Learning Theory
      • Assumptions
        • Behaviour is learned from the environment, but there is an interaction between cognitive processed and the environment
        • Behaviour is learned from observing and imitating the behaviour of role models
        • 4 mediational  processes
      • Mediational Processes
        • Key Terms
          • Role Model: A person who can be observed; they  may influence behaviour
          • Vicarious Reinforcement: Indirect reinforcement through observing behaviour of others.
          • Identification: When an individual associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model, which leads to imitation of observed behaviour
        • 1. Attention: Individual more likely to observe a role model that they identify with.
        • 2. Retention: Behaviour is stored in the LTM
        • 3. Reproduction: Behaviour is recalled and imitated.
        • 4. Motivation: Continues to perform the behaviour due to direct or vicarious reinforcement.
      • Evaluation (AO3)
        • Strengths
          • Research Support: Bandura found that when children  observed  aggressive role models it led to aggressive behaviour being imitated. Level of imitation was affected  by the role model'c characteristics.
          • Acknowledges mental processing: More holistic approach as it considers cognitions' and environmental factors, so it isn't reductionist , thus it isn't an incomplete explanation. Individuals are seen to be in control because of the mediational processes, so it is less deterministic.
        • Limitations
          • Limited explanatory scope: Doesn't explain schizophrenic behaviour as there is no role model to imitate behaviour is still shown.
          • Underestimates the power of biological factors.
    • Cognitive Approach
      • Assumptions
        • The human mind is like a computer. Behaviour is a result of internal mental processes.
        • Information we take in through our senses is actively processes; humans aren't passive responders to their environments.
      • Theoretical Models
        • Information Processing Approach explains how the human mind transforms sensory information. The model assumes that information from the environment (input) is subjected to mental processes which underlies behaviour (output) .
        • STIMULUS -> Input (information comes from the environment  via senses and is encoded by the individual) --> Storage Processes (Information is processed. This mental event is what mediates the information coming and the output) -> Output (Behaviour response) --> BEHAVIOUR
        • A person cannot control the environment around them (input) , however, according to the theoretical model how they process the input can influence how they behave (output)
      • Study of Internal Mental Processes
        • Inference: Internal mental processes are private and cannot be observed directly so scientific methods are used. Inferences are conclusions drawn from evidence and reasoning. We can make inferences from observable behaviour.
        • Linked to human behaviour as if we saw someone panicking at the sight of a spider, we would infer that they are scared.
      • Role of Schemas
        • A schema is a cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information. They're packages of knowledge developed from experience.
        • Useful as they allow us to take mental shortcuts when interpreting huge amounts of information we have to deal with everyday.
        • Allows us to fill in gaps of information, inform our expectations and enables us to behave properly in a situation.
        • Linked to human behaviour as negative schemas can mould a person's concept of themselves, which filters into adulthood and can lead to depression.
      • Computer Models
        • Programmed with algorithms, which act like human 'mental processes'.  CP are computeres that can ecpress 'intelligenct behaviour' (Artificial behaviour), which helps us understand the human mind and how it works.
        • Computers have an input (i.e. Keyboard) which is processed (algorithms) and the output is the behaviour (i.e.sound)
      • Evaluation (AO3)
        • Strengths
          • Uses Scientific and Objective Methods: Approach employs highly controlled and rigorous methods of study in order for the researchers to infer the cognitive processes at work. By doing so it allows high level of operationalisation of variables which produces data. Furthermore, it can eliminate extraneous variables, helping use establish cause and effect relationships.
          • Real Life: Research into faulty cognitions and cognitive of depression - such as CBT, has helped many people. David et al found that CBT was the most effective treatment for depression.
        • Limitations
          • Reductionist: Although similarities between the human mind and computers ecist, the mind is still very different. The approach doesn't consider emotions and only focuses on cognitive processes, thus it is an incomplete explanation
          • Too abstract and theoretical in nature: Researchers argue that cognitive concepts, like schemas, are too theoretical as they can't be observed forming and changing in an empirical  way. Psychologists infer mental processes using artificial tasks, which doesn't reflect everyday life, thus reducing the ecological validity as results aren't applicable to the real world.
    • Biological Approach
      • Assumptions
        • Everything psychological has a biological basis.
        • Our biology is determined by evolution and genetics.
        • To investigate the mind, we must investigate the physical brain.
      • Genetic basis of behaviour
        • Genome carries instructions about how to build cells. Cells create biology -  physical structures such as nervous systems and biochemicals (hormones).
        • Biology controls thoughts and behaviour, according to the approach. Alleles are different versions of the same gene that contributes to each person's unique feature..
        • Linked to human behaviour as researchers have found that genes lead to the vulnerability of OCD. The 5-HTT gene affects transportation of serotonin causing lower levels of serotonin in people with OCD
      • The Brain
        • Cerebrum is the largest part of  the brain, which makes up 85% of the brain. The outer surface is called the Cerebal Cortex, which is responsible for many high order functions such as thought and language.
        • Brain stem - adult part regulates breathing and movement (basic).
        • Divided into 2 hemispheres, which are divided into 4 lobes.
        • According to biological psychologists if the brain suffers damage, it leads to change in behaviour as it affects our thinking patterns.
      • Neurotransmitters
        • 80-100 billion neurons
        • Used to pass messages from one neuron to another. When a nerve impulse reaches the end one one neuron neurotransmitters are released. They travel from one neuron to the next across a synapse.
        • Linked to human behaviour as researchers have found that low levels of serotonin was linked to depression and high levels were linked to anxiety.
      • Evolution
        • Process whereby successive generations of organisms change.
        • The process of natural selection was proposed by Darwin and suggests if an organism can adapt to its environment, they're more likely to survive and reproduce.
        • Mutations can make beneficial genes, which is then genetically transmitted to the offsprings, which  continues for generations, so it becomes more common
        • Linked to human behaviour as early humans inherited genes  which developed a nervous system and aggression. Survival of the fittest occurs as those that produce offsprings with a nervous system survive.
      • Evaluation (AO3)
        • Limitations
          • Nature and Nurture cannot be separated easily: Research often uses twin studies, so evidence found isn't applicable to everyone. Identical twins grow up n the same environment, so it's impossible to detangle them. High concordant rates could be because of same treatment rather than identical genes.
          • Reductionist: Doesn't consider other factors such as cognitive factors. The Stress Diathesis Model suggests that the vulnerability to a gene for a behaviour is triggered by the environment in order to be expressed.
        • Strengths
          • Supporting Evidence for genetic explanations: McGuffin conducted a twin study on depression and found 46% concordance rates for MZ twins and 20% for DZ twins. The more shared genes  you have the greater the likelihood of shared behaviour.
          • Practical Applications: understanding about the biochemical processes has enabled the development of psychoactive drugs that alter the levels of these biochemical. E.g. Prozac increases serotonin levels, thus, the biological structure can be altered to improve behaviour and  lives of people.
      • Additional Content
        • Genotype (inherited gene) and phenotype (expressed gene) -> whether they are expressed depends on the interaction between genes and genes or genes and the environment.
        • Gene + Gene -> The difference depends on dominant (expressed) and recessive alleles (both needed to be expressed).
        • Gene + Environment  -> Stress Diathesis  Model suggest individuals may have vulnerable genes which require an environmental trigger to be expressed.
        • Twin studies (MZ -> 100% shared genes, DZ -> 50%). Statistics used to measure the chance that 2 individual share a characteristic is known as concordant rates.
        • If MZ has a higher rate then characteristic develops because of genetics but if MZ and DZ have similar rates then  it is determined by environment.
        • Golden rule for twin studies: The more shared genes the greater the likelihood of shared genetic behaviour
  • Key Study: Bandura's Bobo Doll Study (1961)
    • Procedure: 72 children aged 3-6 observed an adult model behaving aggressively or non-aggressively to a bobo doll. There was a delay before allowing the participants in the same room.
    • Findings: Imitation still occurred despite delay. There were also gender differences as boys were more aggressive than girls, who displayed more verbal aggression than physical. Imitation was greater for same-sex model than opposite sex.
    • Conclusion: Children imitate behaviour from what they observe. Children more likely to imitate same-sex role model. Boys are more physically aggressive buy girls are more verbally aggressive.
    • Mediational Processes
      • Key Terms
        • Role Model: A person who can be observed; they  may influence behaviour
        • Vicarious Reinforcement: Indirect reinforcement through observing behaviour of others.
        • Identification: When an individual associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model, which leads to imitation of observed behaviour
      • 1. Attention: Individual more likely to observe a role model that they identify with.
      • 2. Retention: Behaviour is stored in the LTM
      • 3. Reproduction: Behaviour is recalled and imitated.
      • 4. Motivation: Continues to perform the behaviour due to direct or vicarious reinforcement.
  • Emergence Of Cognitive Neuroscience
    • A scientific study of the biological basis for mental processing, specifically how neurons behave during these processes.
    • This is done by measuring activity of the brain during cognitive processing.
    • Brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET scans have allowed scientists to systematically observe and describe the neurological basis of mental processing.
    • Cognitive Approach
      • Assumptions
        • The human mind is like a computer. Behaviour is a result of internal mental processes.
        • Information we take in through our senses is actively processes; humans aren't passive responders to their environments.
      • Theoretical Models
        • Information Processing Approach explains how the human mind transforms sensory information. The model assumes that information from the environment (input) is subjected to mental processes which underlies behaviour (output) .
        • STIMULUS -> Input (information comes from the environment  via senses and is encoded by the individual) --> Storage Processes (Information is processed. This mental event is what mediates the information coming and the output) -> Output (Behaviour response) --> BEHAVIOUR
        • A person cannot control the environment around them (input) , however, according to the theoretical model how they process the input can influence how they behave (output)
      • Study of Internal Mental Processes
        • Inference: Internal mental processes are private and cannot be observed directly so scientific methods are used. Inferences are conclusions drawn from evidence and reasoning. We can make inferences from observable behaviour.
        • Linked to human behaviour as if we saw someone panicking at the sight of a spider, we would infer that they are scared.
      • Role of Schemas
        • A schema is a cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information. They're packages of knowledge developed from experience.
        • Useful as they allow us to take mental shortcuts when interpreting huge amounts of information we have to deal with everyday.
        • Allows us to fill in gaps of information, inform our expectations and enables us to behave properly in a situation.
        • Linked to human behaviour as negative schemas can mould a person's concept of themselves, which filters into adulthood and can lead to depression.
      • Computer Models
        • Programmed with algorithms, which act like human 'mental processes'.  CP are computeres that can ecpress 'intelligenct behaviour' (Artificial behaviour), which helps us understand the human mind and how it works.
        • Computers have an input (i.e. Keyboard) which is processed (algorithms) and the output is the behaviour (i.e.sound)
      • Evaluation (AO3)
        • Strengths
          • Uses Scientific and Objective Methods: Approach employs highly controlled and rigorous methods of study in order for the researchers to infer the cognitive processes at work. By doing so it allows high level of operationalisation of variables which produces data. Furthermore, it can eliminate extraneous variables, helping use establish cause and effect relationships.
          • Real Life: Research into faulty cognitions and cognitive of depression - such as CBT, has helped many people. David et al found that CBT was the most effective treatment for depression.
        • Limitations
          • Reductionist: Although similarities between the human mind and computers ecist, the mind is still very different. The approach doesn't consider emotions and only focuses on cognitive processes, thus it is an incomplete explanation
          • Too abstract and theoretical in nature: Researchers argue that cognitive concepts, like schemas, are too theoretical as they can't be observed forming and changing in an empirical  way. Psychologists infer mental processes using artificial tasks, which doesn't reflect everyday life, thus reducing the ecological validity as results aren't applicable to the real world.

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