MEMORY

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  • MEMORY
    • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) The multi-store model of memory
      • sensory register
        • duration: brief < 1/2 second
        • coding: two types: iconic memory codes visually echoic memory codes acoustically
        • capacity: high - many nerves
      • short- term memory
        • coding: acoustic
        • duration: limited- 18- 30 secs
        • capacity: 7+-2 items or 4 chunks
      • long- term memory
        • coding: semantic
        • capacity: potentially unlimited
        • duration: potentially unlimited
      • AO3
        • Strengths
          • Milner (1965) case study of HM shows that there are different stores for STM and LTM
          • Squire (1992) hippocampus  active in LTM tasks + prefrontal during STM
        • Limitations
          • case study of Clive Wearing shows that there are different types of LTM
          • too simplistic
    • Types of long-term memory
      • semtantic
        • 'knowing that'
        • facts/ knowledge
        • explicitly recalled
      • episodic
        • implicitly recalled
        • events/ experiences
        • 'knowing that'
      • procedural
        • implicitly recalled
        • skill based
      • AO3
        • case study of Clive Wearing
          • lack of control
        • Tulving at al (1994)brain scan evidence
    • Baddeley and Hitch (1974) The working memory model
      • central executive
        • episodic buffer
          • capacity: limited- 4 chunks
        • phonological loop
          • coding: acoustic
          • capacity: limited
          • phonological store
          • articulatory control process
        • visuo- spatial sketchpad
          • inner scribe
          • visual cache
        • coding: can process info of any sensory modality
        • capacity:limited
      • AO3
        • limitations
          • central exceutive vague
        • stengths
          • Baddeley et al. (1975) dual task studies
            • artificial tasks
          • Braver et al (1997) brain imaging research
    • Explanations for forgetting
      • Interference
        • proative
        • retroactive
        • McGeoch and McDonald (1931) effects of similarity
          • 6 types of list
          • ability to recall depended on nature of second list
        • AO3
          • strengths
            • Baddeley and Hitch (1977)
              • rugby players
          • limitations
            • lab experiments
              • short time frame
      • Retrieval failure due to absence of cues
        • Tulving (1983) encoding specifity principle
        • content dependent
          • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
            • deep sea
        • state depenedent
          • Carter and Cassaday (1998)
            • anti-histamines
        • AO3
          • strengths
            • real- life application to CI
          • limitations
            • Godden and Baddeley- replication
    • Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony
      • cognitive interview
        • changing order
        • changing perspective
        • report everything
        • AO3
          • limitations
            • time consuming
        • reinstating the context
        • ECI
          • relax and speak slowly
          • clarify questions
          • adapt Qs to meet needs
    • Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony
      • Misleading information
        • leading questions
          • loftus and palmer (1974)
            • film clips
              • 40.8 mph vs 31.8 mph
            • glass
        • AO3
          • strengths
            • prevent miscarriages
            • practical uses
          • limitations
            • artificial tasks
            • conflicting evidence
              • Yuille and Cutshall
      • Anxiety
        • negative effect
          • Johnson and Scott
          • funnel theory
        • positive effect
          • Yuille and Cutshall (1986)
          • Chritsianson and Hubinettee (1993)
          • flight or flight
        • contradictory findings
          • Yerkes Dodson law
            • Deffenbacher (1983)
        • AO3
          • limitations
            • ethical issues
            • field studies lack control

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