Memory

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  • Memory
    • How do we remember?
      • 3 basic stages...
        • Encoding - Information experienced by the senses and transformed into a code that can be used by the memory system
        • Storage - Information retained in memory system temporarily or permanently
        • Retrieval - Information located in memory system and out to use
    • Atkinson & Shiffrin
      • Sensory memory
        • Sensory information temporarily stored for less than a few secs
        • Some things are sent to short-term memory (STM) for processing
      • STM/working memory - Information temporarily stored for a few secs (then forgotten or stored in long-term memory)
      • Long-term memory (LTM) - Potentially permanent store of all information and experiences
    • Sensory memory
      • Provides continuity as it fills in blanks (e.g. blinks)
      • Visual = iconic memory
      • Auditory = echoic memory
      • Touch = Haptic memory
      • Capacity is limited, BUT, greater than that of STM
      • Duration = 300ms for visual stimuli and 2 secs for auditory information
      • Coding
    • Sperling (1960)
      • Participants presented with 12 random letters for 50ms
      • Recalled an average of 4.4 letters
      • In another condition, participants were given a tone straight after the presentation indicating which line to recall
      • Average recall of 10 letters
    • STM
      • Miller (1956) - STM capacity = 7 +/- 2 (chunks)
      • Information retained through rehearsal
      • Peterson & Peterson (1959)  -Forgetting due to decay...
        • Trigrams with rehearsal prevented
        • 3 secs = 80% recalled
        • 18 secs = 10% recall
    • STM forgetting
      • Waugh & Norman (1965)...
        • 16 digits presented 1 at a time, followed by tone
        • Had to report number that followed previous instance of final number
        • Recall worse when more numbers between target and recall
    • Working memory
      • Working memory - Ability to hold in mind and mentally manipulate information over short periods of time
      • Introduced by Miller (1960), made famous by Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
      • Baddeley & Hitch = working memory model (central executive, phonological loops, episodic buffer, visuo-spatail sketchpad)
    • Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
      • Shows different STM and LTM stores
      • Heard list of 20 words and had to recall immediately or after interference task
      • Primacy effect (LTM)
      • Recency effect (STM)
    • LTM
      • Has multiple components
      • Declarative/explicit memory - Consciously appears in mind upon retrieval (e.g. name/personal experiences/facts)
      • Non-declarative/implicit memory - Can influence behaviour without conscious retrieval (e.g. riding a bike)
      • Episodic memory - Type of explicit memory: its autobiographical memory
      • Semantic memory - Type of explicit memory: general knowledge
      • Procedural memory - Type of implicit memory: knowing HOW (e.g. riding a bike)
      • Perceptual representation memory/priming - Type of implicit memory: involved in the faster processing of previously presented stimuli
      • Maintenance rehearsal = shallow processing
      • Elaborative rehearsal = deep processing
      • Retroactive interference - New information interferes with old
    • LTM forgetting
      • Proactive interference - Old information interferes with new
      • Jenkins & Dallenbach(1924) found that those who slept before recall did better as they weren't presented with new information (evidence of retroactive interference)
      • Loftus & Palmer
      • Flashbulb memories - Detailed memories of the circumstances under which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, emotionally involving event

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