STM, LTM, Types of LTM and Working Model

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  • MEMORY
    • Short Term Memory
      • Encoded acoustically
      • Capacity: George Miller's Magic Number 7±2
      • Duration: Less than 30 seconds
    • Long Term Memory
      • Encoded semantically
      • Potentially infinite capacity
      • Duration lasts as long as you live
        • Bahrick et al: tested 400 people on photo recognition of class mates which consisted of  50 photos, in a free recall test pps were asked to list the names they could remember
          • Pps who were tested within 15yrs of graduation were 90% accurate, after 48 years this fell to 70%
    • Types of LTM
      • SEMANTIC MEMORY: Shared memories for facts and knowledge e.g. 2+2=4. They may begin as episodic memories as we acquire knowledge based on personal experience
      • EPISODIC MEMORY: Personal memories of events e.g. first day at school. You may recall the context surrounding the events plus associated emotions
      • PROCEDURAL MEMORY: Memory for how to do things e.g. knowing how to tie a shoe lace. Usually acquired through repetition and practice
    • Working Model of Memory
      • CENTRAL EXECUTIVE: Monitors and controls all other functions in working memory
        • Very limited capacity for storing data
        • Directs attention to particular tasks
      • PHONOLOGICAL LOOP: Codes speech sounds, typically involving maintenance rehearsal
        • INNER EAR: Phonological store which holds words you hear
        • INNER VOICE: An articulatory process which is used for the words you hear or see.
          • These words are silently repeated (looped) which is a form of maintenance rehearsal
        • Has a limited capacity
      • VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD:Codes visual information in terms of separate objects as well as the arrangement of these objects in one's field
        • VISUAL CACHE: Stores info about visual items e.g. form and colour
        • INNER SCRIBE: Stores the arrangement of objects in the visual fields
      • EPISODIC BUFFER: Added by Baddely in 2000 as he realised the model needed a general store which would hold visual and acoustic info
        • Limited capacity
        • Maintains a sense of time sequencing in order to construct a mental episode of what is being experienced
      • Baddely & Hitch
      • STM has multiple stores
      • WMM is more plausible than MSM as it explains STM in terms of both temporary storage and active processing
      • BADDELY ET AL 1998: PL plays a role in the development of reading - PL isn't functioning properly in children with dyslexia
      • CENTRAL EXECUTIVE: The notion of a single central executive is probably wrong and there are many components
        • ESLINGER & DAMASIO: Studied a patient with cerebral tumour removed. He performed well on test requiring reason - suggests CE is intact, but had poor decision making - suggests CE is not wholly intact
  • Types of LTM
    • SEMANTIC MEMORY: Shared memories for facts and knowledge e.g. 2+2=4. They may begin as episodic memories as we acquire knowledge based on personal experience
    • EPISODIC MEMORY: Personal memories of events e.g. first day at school. You may recall the context surrounding the events plus associated emotions
    • PROCEDURAL MEMORY: Memory for how to do things e.g. knowing how to tie a shoe lace. Usually acquired through repetition and practice

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