# Memory 3 (Pg58-63)

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• Created by: emg02
• Created on: 01-09-20 12:57
• Memory 3 (Pg58-)
• Factors Affecting the Accuracy of EWT: Misleading Information
• Loftus & Palmer (1974) Car Accidents= Leading Qs
• 45 students watched film clips of car accidents and were then asked questions about the accident
• In the CRITICAL QUESTION, a leading or misleading question, pps were asked to decribe how fast the cars were travelling
• There were 5 groups of pps and each were given a different verb: hit, contacted, bumped, collided, smashed.
• Mean estimated speed was calced for each group. Contacted=31.8mph. Smashed=40.5mph
• Response-Bias Explanation
• Suggests wording of the Q has no real effect on the pps' memories- just how they decide to answer
• 2nd L&P (1974) supported the Substitution Explanation, which proposes wording of the leading Q changes the pps' memory
• Loftus & Palmer (1974) Car Accidents= Leading Qs
• 45 students watched film clips of car accidents and were then asked questions about the accident
• In the CRITICAL QUESTION, a leading or misleading question, pps were asked to decribe how fast the cars were travelling
• There were 5 groups of pps and each were given a different verb: hit, contacted, bumped, collided, smashed.
• Mean estimated speed was calced for each group. Contacted=31.8mph. Smashed=40.5mph
• Pps who heard smashed were more likely to say they saw broken glass than those who heard hit (there was no glass)= critical verb altered memory
• Gabbert et al. (2003) Crime Watch= Post-Event Discussion
• Gabbert studied pps in pairs. Each pp watched video of same crime but filmed from different points of view. Each saw elements the other couldn't. Both pps discussed before completing a recall test
• 71% f pps mistakenly recalled aspects of the event that they didn't see but had picked up in discussion
• The corresponding figure in a control group where there was no discussion was 0%
• This is evidence of memory conformity
• FATAO(EWT): Anxiety
• Creates strong physiological arousal in the body which prevents us paying attention to important cues, so recall is worse
• ie. In EWT, the presence of a weapon creates anxiety and worsens recall. as focus is on weapon
• Johnson & Scott (1976) Anxiety Negative Effect- Waiting Room
• Pps believed they were taking part in a lab study.
• Low-anxiety condition: Pps in waiting room heard a casual convo in the next room and then saw a man exit carrying a pen with grease on his hands
• High-anxiety condition: Heard a heated argument from the next room and saw a man exit holding a knife covered in blood
• Pps later picked out a picture of the man from 50, and 49% who's seen him carry a pen identified him. Only 33% of those who'd seen him with the knife identified him= Tunnel Theory (on knife)
• Yuille & Cutshall (1986) Anxiety + Effect- Shooting in a Shop
• Anxious arousal can put the body and mind into fight or flight= awareness which may improve person's recall
• Y&C studied an actual shooting in a shop in Vancouver, Canada. The shop owner shot a thief dead. There were 21 witnesses but only 13 took part in the study
• Were interviewed for 4-5 months after the shooting and these were compared to the original police interviews at the time of the shooting
• Accuracy was determined by the number of details recalled in each account
• Improving the accuracy of EWT: Cognitive Interview
• Fisher & Geiselman (1992) CI
• 1. Report everything
• Even the trivial things
• 2. Reinstate the context
• Links to context-DF, so imagine scene as recall
• 3. Reverse the order
• Or from different points in the sequence (back and forth)
• 4. Change perspective
• Effect on recall schema
• Enhanced CI (ECI)
• Focus on social dynamics of interaction ie. when/not to use eye contact