Memory

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  • Core theory- The Multi-Store Model
    • Memory
      • Key concepts
        • Input
          • The process of data entry
        • Encoding
          • The process in which data is changed into another format
        • Storage
          • The process in which data is held, ready to be used at a later date.
        • Retrieval
          • The process in which data is located and then taken out of storage.
        • Output
          • The process of using data once it has been retrieved.
        • Accessibility problems
          • The info is still in the LTM, but cannot be retrieved right then.
          • It could be on the 'tip of your tongue' and if you have a cue, you might remember it later.
        • Availability problems
          • When the info is no longer in the LTM.
          • Like when a file is deleted off a computer, gone for good.
      • Alternative theory
        • 2 levels of processing
          • Shallow processing
            • Only processes physical features like a word.
          • Deep processing
            • Better recall
            • Gives information meaning.
      • Memory aids
        • Identified memory aids such as cues.
        • A cue helps trigger and access lost info through the senses.
        • A pupil could revise wearing a perfume for a subject and wear the same perfume in the exam.
          • Smelling the perfume would act as a cue and help retrieve any information, aiding her memory.
      • Core study- Terry's serial position effect
        • APRC (aim, procedure, results, conclusion)
          • Aim
            • To see if memory is affected by time and space, specifically to test the serial position effect.
          • Procedure
            • Repeated measures design
            • 39 students
            • blocks of 15 TV adverts
              • 10 months old
              • < 30 seconds
            • Independent variable
              • Whether the adverts were remembered straight after and after a 3 minute delay with a written task
            • Dependent variable
          • Results
            • Showed a serial position effect
            • Immediate recall condition
              • Primacy effect
                • Good recall of the first adverts
              • Recency effect
                • Good recall of the last adverts
            • Delayed condition
              • Recency effect was lost.
          • Conclusion
            • Immediate recall condition
              • First adverts
                • Rehearsed
                • Remembered well
                • Transferred to LTM.
              • Last adverts
                • Remebered
                • Still in STM, had not decayed yet
              • Middle adverts
                • Not remembered
                • Displaced
                • Lack of time for rehearsal
            • Delayed condition
              • Stopped them rehearsing last commercials in STM
              • Displaced
              • Allowed to decay
        • Criticisms
          • Lab experiments lack ecological validity.
            • Artificial settings
            • Does not reflect real life situations
            • Pay more attention to adverts in that situation, not real life
          • Lacked construct validity
            • Only a narrow measure
            • More to memory than remembering TV adverts
            • Not a good test of memory
          • Demand characteristics
            • Participants pick up cues on the aim
            • Responses on second task may not be reliable or valid.
    • The theory
      • Memory is made up of separate and distinct stores.
        • Sensory memory
          • Holds information about our immediate surroundings.
            • Sights
            • Smells
          • Duration= a few seconds
          • Info needs to be paid attention to in order to transfer into the STM.
        • Short-term memory (STM)
          • Duration= 10-20 seconds
          • Capacity= 7+/-2 chunks
            • If the capacity is exceeded, displacement happens.
              • Displacement is where information is 'shunted' out by new information.
          • To keep info in the STM we need to keep rehearsing it. This is maintenance rehearsal.
            • If you maintenance rehearse something for more than 30 seconds, it transfers into the LTM.
          • Info needs to be paid attention to in order to transfer into the STM.
        • Long-term memory (LTM)
          • Information should remain in the LTM forever.
          • Unlimited duration.
          • Unlimited capacity.
          • If you maintenance rehearse something for more than 30 seconds, it transfers into the LTM.
      • Memory is affected by time (duration) and space (capacity)
      • To retrieve info, it is transferred out of the LTM and back into the STM to be output.
    • Criticisms
      • Over simlifies the STM and LTM.
        • STM is not just a passive store and deals with multiple inputs.
        • LTM has different stores for different info.
      • Over emphasises the role of rehearsal.
        • Info can transfer into STM without being rehearsed, for example, tastes and smells.
      • Ignores individual differences/
        • It doesn't explain why people can have a better memory than others.

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