Memory

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  • Created by: 11pyoung
  • Created on: 31-03-16 18:26
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  • Memory
    • Multi store explanation
      • Encoding
        • Changing information so  that it can be stored
      • Storage
        • Holding  information in the memory system
      • Retrieval
        • Recovering information from  storage
      • The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores
      • Sensory store
        • Holds information received from the senses for a very short period of time
      • Short-term store
        • Holds approximately seven chunks of information for a limited amount of time
      • Long-term store
        • Holds a vast amount of information for a very long period of time
      • Peterson + Peterson
        • Participants given 3 sets of letters to remember. Asked to count back in threes for different lengths of time. Participants were asked to recall the letters.
        • Participants had forgotten all the information after 18 seconds
        • We can't hold information in the  short term memory unless we rehearse it
        • Evaluation
          • lacks ecological validity-  not everyday people have to learn nonsense letter
          • Not everything we learn is rehearsed
          • repeating things doesn't make it easier to remember them
          • helps us understand why it is difficult to remember phone numbers and car registrations.
        • Practical applications
          • Registration numbers and postcodes= 7 numbers/ letters
      • Recency effect
        • Information received later is recalled better than earlier information
      • Primacy effect
        • The first information received is recalled better than subsequent information
    • Reconstructive memory  explanation
      • Bartlett
        • participants read  a story called 'war of ghosts'. Later asked to recall story as accurately as possible. Repeated several times
        • Participants found it difficult to remember parts of the story with unfamiliar themes. They changed the story so that it made more sense to them. They changed more of it each time they retold it.
        • Our memory is influenced by our beliefs.
        • Evaluation
          • Emphasises  the influence of people's previous knowledge and background on the way they remember things.
          • The story was confusing and dissimilar to everyday experiences.
        • Practical applications
          • Helps us understand why two people who are recalling the same event may have two  versions of the story.
      • Altering our recollection of things  so that they make sense to us.
    • Levels of processing explanation
      • Structural processing
        • Thinking about the physical  appearance of  words to be learnt
      • Phonetic processing
        • Thinking about the sounds of words to be learnt
      • Semantic processing
        • Thinking about the meaning of words to be learnt
      • The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learn it
      • Craik + Lockhart
        • Participants were presented lists of words and asked questions about each word, to which the answer was either 'yes' or 'no'. Some questions required structural, others, phonetic and others semantic. They then had to  asked to identify the words they had answered questions about on a larger list of words.
        • Participants identified 70% of words requiring semantic processing. 35% of words requiring phonetic processing and 15% of words requiring structural processing.
        • The more deeply information is processed, the more likely it is to be remembered.
        • Evaluation
          • Doesn't explain why  deeper levels of processing helps t memory.
        • Practical applications
          • Improving study skills
    • Interference
      • Things that we have learnt make it difficult to recall other information that we have learnt
      • Retroactive interference
        • When information we have recently learnt hinders our ability to recall information we have learnt previously
      • Proactive interference
        • When information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall new information
      • Underwood + Postman
        • Participants were divided into two groups. Group A had learn  a list of word pairs. They then had to learn a second word list. Group B had to only learn the first list of words.
        • Group B's recollection of the first list was more accurate than group A's
        • New learning interfered with participant's ability to recall the first list.
    • Context
      • The general setting or environment in which activities happen
      • Godden +Balkeley
        • Participants divided into 4 groups. All had the same word list. Group1 = underwater, underwater. Group 2= underwater, shore. Group3 = shore, shore. Group 4 = shore, underwater.
        • Groups 1 + 3 recalled 40% more words than groups 2 + 4
        • Recall of information will be better if it happens in the same context that learning takes place.
    • Brain damage
      • Anterograde amnesia
        • Being unable to learn new information after suffering brain damage
      • Hippocampus
        • A brain structure that is crucial  for memory
      • Retrograde amnesia
        • Loss of memory for events that happened before brain damage occurred
    • Eyewitness testimony
      • Reliability
        • The extent to which it can be regarded as accurate
      • Leading question
        • A question that hints that a particular type of answer is required
      • Cognitive interview
        • A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event
      • Bruce + Young
        • Psychology lecturers were caught on security cameras. Participants were asked to identify the faces seen on the security camera from a series of  photos.
        • The lecturer's students  made more correct identifications than other students and experienced police officers
        • Previous familiarity helps when identifying faces
        • Evaluation
          • Demonstrates the limited value of security cameras when it comes to identifying someone
          • There are other factors that affect eyewitness testimony and cause it to become unreliable
        • Practical applications
          • Understand the limited use of identity parades as our memory of faces can be unreliable
            • Needs more evidence in order to convict a suspected criminal

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