Memory AS

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  • Memory
    • Key terms
      • Encoding
        • changing into  form that can be remembered
          • Baddeley (1996) - acoustic vs semantic
            • 10 words, recalled after 20 mins
              • acoustically similar and dissimilar
                • Worse recall for similar than dissimilar
                  • LTM makes use of semantic encoding
                  • STM makes use of acoustic encoding
              • semantically similar and dissimilar
                • Worse recall for similar than dissimilar
                  • LTM makes use of semantic encoding
                  • STM makes use of acoustic encoding
      • Capacity
        • how much can be stored
          • Baddeley et al (1975) - serial reall test, long vs short words
            • reading speed measured, sets of 5 words, from 2 lists, one syllable vs polysyllable
              • 2 seconds to recall all 5 words in order
                • more short words recalled than long words
      • Duration
        • how long the info is stored for
          • LTM - Bahrick (1975) - longitudinal study, 392 high school students over 50 years
            • recollection- given name and asked to match to photo
              • 14 years- 90%, 25 years- 80%, 34 years- 75%, 47 years- 60%
                • can remember certain info for long periods of time, accuracy of LTM is better with recognition
            • Recall- showed pictures and asked for name
              • 7 years- 60%, 47 years- 20%
                • can remember certain info for long periods of time, accuracy of LTM is better with recognition
          • STM - Peterson and Peterson (1959) - consonant trigrams,  no rehearsal (counting while viewing)
            • after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds asked to recall trigram
              • 3 seconds- 80%, longer intervals held decreased recall, 18 seconds - less than 10%
                • without rehearsal, info rapidly decays from STM
    • Multi-store model
      • Sensory memory
        • registers on the senses
        • Attention
          • STM
            • 7+/- 2 bits
              • Miller (1956) magic number 7
            • 15-30 seconds
            • usually acoustic
            • Rehearsed
              • LTM
                • infinite capacity
                • 2 minutes to a lifetime
                • usually semantic
      • STM
        • 7+/- 2 bits
          • Miller (1956) magic number 7
        • 15-30 seconds
        • usually acoustic
        • Rehearsed
          • LTM
            • infinite capacity
            • 2 minutes to a lifetime
            • usually semantic
      • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
      • Ebbinghaus - Serial position effect
        • Primacy effect
          • first item
            • LTM
        • Recency effect
          • last item
            • STM
        • IMPLICATION- two distinct memory stores
    • Working Memory Model
      • Baddeley & Hitch
      • Central executive
        • Episodic Buffer
          • Phonological Loop
            • inner ear
            • inner voice
            • sound info store, limited, temporary
          • Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
            • visual cache
            • inner scribe
            • visual and spatial info store, temporary, limited
        • supervisory role, cognitive demands, limited capacity, flexible, resource allocation
      • KF, brain injury - motorcycle accident
        • verbal memory poor, visual memory unaffected
          • IMPLICATION - evidence for 2 slave systels
    • EWT
      • Loftus & Palmer
        • Leading questions
          • Videos of traffic accidents
            • asked for speed of cars when
              • Smashed; 40.8 mph
              • Collided: 39.3 mph
              • Bumped: 38.1 mph
              • Hit: 34.0 mph
              • Contacted: 31.8 mph
        • Weapon Focus effect
          • 1) man with pen and grease n hands
            • ppts asked to identify man from 50 photos
              • 1) 49%
                • less accurate recall with 'weapon' as attention goes to weapon not person
                  • witnesses to violent crimes may not recall appearance details as esaily
              • 2) 33%
                • less accurate recall with 'weapon' as attention goes to weapon not person
                  • witnesses to violent crimes may not recall appearance details as esaily
          • 2) paper knife with blood
            • ppts asked to identify man from 50 photos
              • 1) 49%
                • 2) 33%
          • Yuille & Cutshall (1986)
            • 13 witnesses to real shooting, shop owner injured, theif shot dead
              • close witnesses  gave most detail even months later
          • Age and EWT
            • Dekle (1966)
              • identity parade, children more willnig to make a positive identification
                • however often wrong person identified
                  • children more suceptible to poost even info
            • Poole & Lindsay (2001) - 3 to 8 year olds
              • science demo, told story by parent, children asked about demo
                • children incorporated story info with their original memory
                  • source monitoring is poorer in younger children
          • Yerkes Dodson Law
            • High and low anxiety - poor EWT
            • Moderate anxiety - good EWT
          • Cognitive interview technique - Geiselman
            • 1) recreate the context
              • 2) report every detail
                • 3) recall in reverse order
                  • 4) recall from different perspective
        • Memory Strategies
          • Organisation
            • create hierarchies to organise meaningful info
              • Bower (1969) - list of words to learn
                • random 19% recall
                • organised 65% recall
          • repition and rehearsal
            • MSM rehearsal needed to transfer to LTM
          • Method of Loci
            • use known places, e.g. home
              • link a word to a location in home e.g. fridge
          • Elaborative Rehearsal
            • make new info meaningful
              • mnemonics
          • Acronyms
            • develop strong memory trace e.g. never east shredded wheat

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