Memory

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  • Memory
    • Coding in memory
      • STM - acoustic
        • IJE - we use visual coding in STM
      • LTM - semantic
        • IJE - coding in LTM can vary (visual, semantic and acoustic)
      • Baddeley - acoustically and semantically similar words
    • Capacity
      • STM - limited
        • Jacobs - digit span technique = Miller's magic number 7 (7+/- 2)
          • IJE -  more limited to 4 chunks
            • IJE - recall increases with age
    • Duration
      • STM - 15-30 seconds
        • Peterson and Peterson - consonant syllable and 3 digit number + count backwards, recall after intervals
          • 90% after 3 seconds, 20% after 18 seconds
          • IJE - lacks ecological validity
      • LTM - 2 hours - lifetime
        • Bahrick - year book recognition
          • 15 years of graduation = 90%, 48 years = 70%
    • Multi Store model
      • Info into SM through senses, if attention is paid it moves to STM for immediate tasks, info needs to be rehearsed to go into LTM
        • IJE - HM - brain damage, cant form new LTMs
        • IJE - working memory model shows STM is separate stores
        • IJE - long lasting memories are created from deep processing
    • Working memory model
      • Baddeley and Hitch - STM only
        • Central executive - control system, monitors slave systems but has limited capacity
        • Phonological loop - hold words you hear like an inner ear, Articulatory loop - words you see and repeats like an inner voice
          • IJE - ab statements (central ex.) and remembering sequence (art. loop) = remembering sequence was slower when involving central ex.
            • IJE - KF - ST forgetting was greater than visual = separate stores
          • IJE - EVR - good at reasoning tasks (central ex.) but poor at decision making (also central ex.) = CE has more systems
        • Visuo-spatial scratchpad - info about what we see (form and colour) and object relationships
        • Episodic buffer - general store, infor from central ex. and slave systems + limited capacity
    • LTM
      • Episodic - personal experiences
        • Semantic - knowledge known by everyone
          • Procedural - skills
        • IJE - brain scans show different parts of the brain is used
          • IJE - HM could form procedural memories but not any other
            • IJE - episodic memories improved in older people with treatments
    • Forgetting
      • Pro - active interference - old memories prevent new ones being remembered
        • Retroactive - learning a new memory causes forgetting of the older one
          • IJE - research into interference lacks ecological validity
            • IJE - interference doesn't occur that often so how can forgetting be related to it?
              • IJE - some people are less affected by proactive interference than others
        • Memories must be similar
          • Baddeley and Hitch - rugby players who didnt play all games recalled more teammates due to lack of interference
      • Encoding specificity principle
        • If a cue helps us to recall it has to be present at learning and recall
          • Context dependent forgetting - learning on land/in water and recall in same place was higher
            • State dependent - drunk/sober hgihger recall in same state
            • IJE - real world applications (exams)
              • IJE - more complex topics cues dont work
    • Eyewitness testimony
      • Loftus and Palmer - leading qustions
        • Verbs in place of 'hit' = guess of speed was higher/lower
        • Did you see any broken glass? Faster answers from exp. 1 = yes
      • Post-event info
        • Conformity effect - discussion in pairs = incorrect recall
        • IJE - misleading info (bugs bunny and ariel study)
          • IJE - greater accuracy in real life - robbery in canada, 4 months later with leading qs = still accurate
            • IJE - elderly more prone to misleading info
      • Anxiety
        • Johnson and Scott - weapon focus (high anxiety - knife and pen - low anxiety)
          • Christianson and Hubinette - bank robbery in Sweden - victims had best recall
            • Yerkes Dodson effect - moderate anxiety = enhanced recall, too little or too much = reduced accuracy
              • IJE - weapon focus may be caused by surprise, IJE - lab studies dont create real anxiety levels, IJE - studies of anxiety dont involve violence
    • Cognitive interview
      • 1. Mental reinstatement of original context
        • 2. Report everything
          • 3. Change order
            • 4. Change perspective
      • IJE - increase of correct info in CI than police interviews
        • IJE - report everything and mental reinstatment are strong together
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