Memory

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  • Created by: Samio
  • Created on: 13-01-16 11:21
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  • Memory
    • Multi-store Model
      • Sensory register - iconic and echoic stores with very brief duration, high capacity. transfer by attention
      • STM - limited capacity and duration store. Mainly acoustic coding. Transfer to LTM by rehearsal
      • LTM - unlimited capacity and duration, permanent store. Mainly semantic coding. Created through maintenance rehearsal
      • HM - removal of hippocampus led to damaged LTM, but left STM intact
    • Working Memory Model
      • Central executive - component of WMM that co-ordinates the activities of the three subsystems in memory and allocates resources
      • Visuo-spatial sketchpad - component of WMM that processes visual and spatial information
        • Baddeley et al. - dual task performance
      • Episodic buffer - component of WMM that combines information from the other subsystems, and links working memory to long term memory
    • Explanations of Forgetting
      • Interference
        • Proactive interference - forgetting occurs when previously stored memories disrupt the recall of newer memories
          • Baddeley and Hitch - rugby players are more likely to remember previous teams if they haven't played matches in between
        • Retroactive interference - forgetting occurs when newer memories disrupt the recall of previously stored memories
      • Retrieval failure
        • A form of forgetting the occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access a memory
        • Godden and Baddeley - divers were 40% more likely to remember information if contexts matched
    • Eyewitness Testimony
      • Misleading information
        • Loftus and Palmer - leading questions. Car speed estimates were affected by change in verb (e.g smashed vs. contacted)
        • Gabbert et al. - Post even discussion. 71% of participants mistakenly recalled aspects of the video they hadn't seen after discussion
      • Anxiety
        • Johnson and Scott - weapon focus effect. High anxiety knife condition led to poorer recalll
        • Yuille and Cuthsall shooting - high anxiety associated with better recall when witnessing a real crime
      • Cognitive interview
        • Report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order, change perspective
    • Types of Long Term Memory
      • Episodic memory - a long term memory store for personal events e.g. first day of school
      • Semantic memory - A long term memory store for our knowledge of the world, e.g the capital of London
      • Procedural memory - A long term memory store for our knowledge of how to do things e.g. play the piano
      • HM case study - only lost episodic memory
      • Tulving et al - PET scan, found that episodic and semantic memories are recalled from the prefrontal cortex
    • Encoding, capacity and duration

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