Organelle Functions

Organelle functions

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  • Organelles
    • Nucleus
      • Houses cells genetic material
      • The chromatin consists of DNA and proteins
        • Some of these proteins regulate the cells activities
        • When cells divide, chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes
      • Has instructions for making proteins
      • Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes
        • These pass into the cytoplasm and proteins are assembled at them
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Rough ER
        • Transports proteins that were made on attached ribosomes
          • Some of these proteins may be secreted from the cell
      • Smooth ER
        • Involved in making lipids that the cells need
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Modifies proteins received from ER
        • Packages these proteins into vesicles that can be transported
        • Some of these proteins may go to cell surface membrane so they can be secreted
    • Mitochondria
      • Produce ATP during respiration which releases energy which almost all cells need
    • Chloroplasts
      • Site of photosynthesis in cells
        • Light energy is used to drive the reactions of photosynthesis in which carbohydrate molecules are made from CO2 and H2O
    • Lysosomes
      • Contain digestive enzymes
        • Break down material, e.g. white blood cell - break down invading organisms and head of sperm cell - break down material surrounding egg to help penetration
    • Ribosomes
      • Site of protein synthesis
    • Centrioles
      • Take part in cell division
        • Form fibres known as the spindle which move chromosomes during nuclear division


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