Medicine through time.

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  • Medicine through time.
    • Greek
      • Hippocrates
        • A Greek doctor. Said to be the father of medicine. doctors still have to swear the Hippocratic oath
        • Came up with idea of the four humours
        • Thought that doctors should observe there patients
      • Cures
        • Asclepius
          • Hygieia and Panacea were Asclepius's daughters and helped him heal the sick.
          • Asclepion
            • The temple of Asclepius; people could go there and get better when ill.
            • The asclepion did actually help people get better as it proved ways to keep clean and exercise. This may be the reason why the Romans continued to use and build the asclepions after they conquered Greece.
          • God of healing
      • Causes
        • Most Greeks thought that it was either the Gods or another evil spirit punishing them.
    • Roman
      • Roman Public Health
        • four main parts of the Roman public health:
          • latrines were public toilets.
          • Baths that had three sections: one to open up the pures in the skin one to clean all the dirty away and one to close the pures up afterwards.
          • Sewers were used to carry waste out into rivers that people didn't drink from. They carried all the waste from the baths and latrines. They were also cleaned most nights by extremely poor people.
          • Aquaducts that caried water into the cities
        • The Roman public health systems were built to keep there soldiers healthy. It also links into the fact that Romans believed in the prevension not cure of disease which is why medicine developed slowly during this period.
      • Galen
        • Was a Greek  but was born during the Roman period of history. He believed in Hippocrates four humours, but developed them further
        • Believed that a disease was an imbalance in the humours and to cure this you had to balance them
        • He worked in as a doctor who healed the gladiators wounds, because of this he was able to learn a lot about the body.
        • He proved the existence of the nervous system.
        • He wrote around 60 books which agreed with the churches beliefs, because of this they were used to teach doctors for many centuries.
    • Dark ages
      • This is the period after the Roman Empire collapsed. Lots of medical knowledge was lost and most of the public healths systems were destroyed.
      • Most of the medical knowledge was either kept in monasteries. Because of this only medical knowledge that agreed with the churches beliefs were taught to doctors
      • There were few medical schools so most people went to the wise woman to get better.
      • Because the medical knowledge was kept in the monasteries it didn't spread quickly and anyone who opposed there ideas was shunned.
    • Middle ages
      • advance were made in preventing diseases but it still wasn't as good as the Romans understanding
      • Most things stayed the same. no-one challenged Galen's ideas so medical knowledge continued to develop slowly.
      • During the middle ages the black death occured. This was a bubonic plague that killed nearly 50% of the population of Europe
        • causes
          • what they thought at the time
            • Evil spirits
            • Punishment from God for all of the sins man kind had commited
            • poison
            • Miasmas
            • The alinement of the planets was strange
            • The Jews were also blamed for the black death.
          • Actual causes.
            • It was a virus,  that was carried by fleas on rats. It was transferred to humans when the flea bit them.
            • some people think that it was a bubonic plague whilst others believe it was an Ebola like virus.
        • cures
          • Flagellant
          • live in the sewers
          • 10 year old treacle
          • eat a spoonful of crushed emeralds.
          • put chicken bums on the spots
          • blood letting
          • wash in human exrements
    • Renaissance
      • technology
        • Many new pieces of technology were discovered during this period which helped people to both spread and find new information about thebody. Two examples of this are:
          • The printing press; made it easier and faster to spread knowledge.
          • The microscope.
      • People started to challenge Galen and the church.
        • William Harvey
          • Also challenged Galen's ideas.
            • Discovered arteries and viens and the valve system that helped blood to travel around the body. He also came up with the idea of capillaries but was unable to prove it as wasn't able to see them as the microscope hadn't been invented.
            • Discovered that blood wasn't constantly made and destroyed in the liver but was reused and pumped around the body by the heart.
        • Andreas Vesalius
          • Challenged Galens ideas about anatomy found that:
            • The liver had two sections.
            • Jaw was one bone and not two.
          • Wrote the fabrica of the human body
        • Because  people were less religious it meant that people were doing things that had been prohibited before like dissections this meant that more knowledge was known
      • Renaissance means rebirth.
      • During the renaissance period many new discoveries about medical knowledge were found but very few were useful in curing or preventing disease.
    • Medicine since the renaissance.
      • Penicillin
        • Alexander Fleming was the first person to find penicillin. He wrote an article about it but did nothing further with it. In later years Florey and Chain read his article and decided to investigate the mould. They discovered that it had remarkable healing qualities from testing it  on mice so decided o test it on a human. The man got better but they didn't have  enough to cure him so he died. Once America joined world war two they recognised that penicillin would be very useful so spent millions on developing a way to mass produce it.
      • technology
        • The x-ray was discovered which helped doctors find bullets more easily in patients during the war.
        • The electron microscope was made so people could see microbes more easily.
      • DNA
        • The structure of DNA was found by Watson and Crick through the use of Franklins work. However, like most of the discoveries in the renaissance period it didn't have any ways it could treat people but now it does.
      • NHS
        • The NHS was set up in 1948. At first it was completely free until they realised that this would be unsustainable and made people pay taxes for it use.
      • War
        • War was useful as it gave people the motivation they need to find a cure or prevention for new injuries and illness, and example of this is penicillin.
      • Vaccinations
        • Jenner was  a doctor in a rural part of England, and one day he noticed that none of the milk maids every got small pox.He soon demised that this was because they were forever catching cow pox, a similar disease which was not fatal.
        • Jenner then tested his idea that if you caught cow pox you could not catch small pox on James Phipps. The test proved Jenner's hypothesis. He could his method of  preventing small pox vaccination
        • However many doctors were against Jenner as his new method was being provided free of charge whereas there methods were very expensive so they lost a lot of money because of Jenner's discoveries. They produced many anti-vaccination posters.
      • Germ Theory and Koch
        • In 1861 Louis Pasteur discovered that Germs caused decay and not decay caused Germs. He called his discovery Germ theory.
        • Robert Koch used dyes to show the different types of bacteria. Between Pastier and Koch they had discovered proved that Germs existed.
      • The magic bullet
        • The First magic bullet was found by a member of Koch team and Hata. They were looking for a cure for syphilis.
          • They were looking into Salvarsan compounds when Hata realised that there had been a mistake with the 606th compound tested
            • He retested this compound and found that it was a cure for syphilis. This was the first magic bullet.
        • The second magic bullet to be found was Prontosil. It was discovered by Gerhard  Domagk.
          • He was investigating a cure for blood poisoning when he found Prontosil but he didn't know if would work.
            • His daughter then got blood poisoning and was going to die so he tested it on her. It succeeded so Prontosil was the second magic bullet
      • Cholera
        • John Snow drew a map of a section of London and marked out where all the cholera deaths had been. From this he discovered that they all surrounded the broad street water pump and the people who were dying were the people who drank water from this water pump. He did some more research and found that there was a cesspit right next the pump and decided that the human waste must be contaminating the water. So he took the handle off the water pump so no-one could drink water form the pump.
        • Cholera is a fatal, water born, disease that spread through London killing many people. It was believed to have originated from India and gotten to England via trading

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14soniasogbedji

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