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  • Medicine
    • Before 1845
      • Galen - This Greek doctor dominated medical thinking right up to the end of the 18th century. Only new research based on better scientific instruments like the microscope helped doctors to at last prove that Greek genius was wrong
        • Hippocrates - 1300 years after this doctor developed his theory of the four humors; doctors were still using his methods of opposites to cure this disease. So, for example cold foods and drinks were given when patients to cure them if they had a fever.
      • Black Death  1348/49 - Med-evil Attitudes and beliefs so people were ignorant of the causes of diseases
        • Great plague 17th century (1600s) - Revealed great problems to do with health, despite challenges to the church: health had not improved. The Great Fire could have been a perfect opportunity to have Government involvement.
      • Vesalius 1540s - His work contradicted the great Galen and was rejected by many so it did not lead to better health in his time. However, it did show the value of experimenting and careful note taking in the future advance of medicine.
        • Pare 1570s - His method of ligatures was only particularity effective because no-one would know about germs for another 300 years. He did not realize that the silk threads could spread infection to the blood.
          • Harvey 1620s - He used Vesallius' work to further his investigation into the heart and Circulation
    • 1. Industrial revolution 1750 - 1900 New ways of   communicating = thus leading to new inventions and science & technology
    • 2. Cholera in Britain 1830s - During this time people called for help in tackling disease. A report was made by Edward Chadwick
    • 3. Voluntary public health act 1848 - Government got involved because these epidemics frightened them into taking action against dirty and poor water supply. It led to new sewers, new medical officers and removal of waste
    • 4. Edward Jenner small pox 1796 - 1798 Vaccination compulsory 1852 - Very important in finding out how to prevent disease - helped Pasteur & and Koch
    • 5. Florence Nightingale goes to the Crimean war  1854 - 1856  - She changed nursing it into a hygiene focused profession that made the growth of hospitals possible and thus helped to concentrate medical services in one place leading to better public health
    • 6. Pasteur's Germ theory - This germ theory of 1861 revolutionized public health because changed attitudes & beliefs
    • 7. Compulsory public health act 1875 - this intervention by the public health was more important because it showed an important change in thinking away from laissez  faire attitudes. It actually did little to improve public health nationality.
    • 8. Robert Koch identifies Tuberculous 1882  - He used the Germ theory and linked it to human bacteria thus he found the causes of several life threatening diseases using research teams. Government grants & stating
    • 9. Ehrlich discovers salversan 606 in 1905 - This was the first time a chemical compound was used
    • 10. National insurance act introduced - Government has increasing played a bigger role in public health from 1850 onward. This act of 1911 helped the poor when they were sick and off work.
    • 11. Marie Curie develops mobile x-ray machines - 1914 - 18 - She helped developed them for the purpose of the battlefield during WW1
    • 12. Fleming discovered penicillin-1928 - This discovering, like so many in Medicine, was lucky. However, detailed notes were kept of which others used later in 1940s.
    • 13. Domagk successfully uses Prontosil - 1932 he found a chemical compound to treat blood poising
    • 14. Enough penicillin for allied wounded on D-Day - 6th June 1944 - War was the greatest factor in encouraging governments to invest millions to bring this medicine en masse into production. It proved incredibly successful against bacteria.
    • 15. National health Service starts - The Appointed Day' 5th July 1948 - Casualties in war the forced the government to get more invloved in public healthb care. So it asked  Beveridge to examine how this might be done. His report led directly to this treasured service being founded.
    • 16. Clean Air act - 1952 The Government set up smokeless zones in cities
    • 17. Watson and Crick discovered DNA 1953 - Important scientific discovered - germ Theory v DNA


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