History, medecine in C18th and C19th

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  • medicine in C18th and C19th
    • cause of disease
      • some people thought miasma caused disease
      • spontaneous generation (decay caused disease)
      • germ theory (microbes in the air caused disease)
        • 1661-Louis Pasteur said spontaneous generation was wrong
          • also said that germs caused disease but coulldn't prove it
            • Robert Koch proved him right
              • discovered microbe that caused TB in 1882
              • discovered microbe that caused cholera in 1883
              • Koch developed a method to stain bacteria
                • other scientists could identify microbes
    • prevention
      • public health act 1875
        • people realised that the government should change their laissez-faire attitude due to epidemics
        • authorities must provide: clean water, sewers, public toilets, street lighting and public parks
        • authorities must incpect lodgings for cleanliness, monitor building new houses, check quality of food in shops and employ a public officer of health
      • vaccinations
        • Jenner created the 1st vaccination
          • he noticed his patients that got cow pox didn't get small pox
            • he gave people cow pox, then small pox. no one was infected.
          • 1798- royal society refused to publish his theory so he paid to get it printed
            • by 1800, 100,000 people had been vaccinated
              • 1802- Royal Jennerian society set up, 1804- 12,000 british people had been vaccinated
                • 1840- vaccinations are free, 1853- vaccinations are compulsory
        • Pasteur's team discovered that weakened microbes can cause immunity
          • discovery was called vaccination in tribute to Jenner
    • treatment in hospitals
      • Florence Nightingale
        • transformed public opinion of nurses
        • emphasised cleanliness in hospitals
        • created specialist hospitals
      • surgery
        • 3 main problems were pain, blood loss and infection.
        • anaesthetics
          • 1844- laughing gas was used but it wasn't great
          • from 1846- ether was used but made patients cough and be sick.
          • 1847- James Simpson discovered Chloroform whch was good but easy to overdose
          • 1884- cocaine was used and in 1905, a less addictive version (novocaine) was used
        • antiseptics
          • 1864- Joseph Lister discovers that carbolic acid kills microbes
            • 1865- he soaks bandages in acid to prevent infection
              • 1866- he uses acid to clean wounds, equipment and the air
    • case study: Cholera 1854
      • they couldn't treat it so people just died
      • most people thought it was caused by miasma so people cleaned houses
      • John Snow
        • thought that cholera was caused by dirty water not miasma
        • when cholera broke out, he saw a connection to broad street pump.
          • Snow removed the pump and deaths stopped
            • it was discovered that a cesspit had leaked into broad street pump water supply


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