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  • Ancient Rome
    • Government: Very rich, built sewers and aqueducts, powerful and in control, wanted to improve the public health and hygiene.
    • Medicine
      • Middle Ages
        • Government:: The government did not spend a lot of money, and no sewers or aqueducts were built, meaning it was dirty and unhygienic.
        • Communications: Doctors and medics all used Galen's theories in their work.
        • Religion: People believed God gave and took away illness, so they mainly used supernatural treatments.
        • Science and Technology: Doctors performed amputations and bloodletting on patients, and the movement of the planets was sometimes used to diagnose illness, as well as urine charts.
        • Individuals: Galen's theories were used to teach four types of healers in universities; trained physicians, barber surgeons, apothecaries and housewife physicians.
      • Medical Renaissance:
        • Government: They were rich, and trade improved,so more people could afford doctors and an education. Scientists also had more money to do more experiments>
        • Communications: The printing press was invented, meaning that ideas were spread quickly. Vesalius, Michelangelo and Da Vinci all released drawings of the human body.
        • Individuals: William Harvey invented the water pump , and then realised the heart was a pump and blood travelled around the body in one direction. Andreas Vesalius corrected 200 of Galen's mistakes and wrote a book about his findings, and Michelangelo and Da Vinci did research and experiments.
        • Science and Technology: The water pump and microscopes were invented, and dissections on animals and humans were allowed.
        • Religion: The reformation occurred, which meant that the Church has less power, so supernatural treatments weren't used as much.
      • Industrial Revolution
        • Government: The government did not want to get involved in the cholera outbreaks, and had a laissez-faire attitude towards it. They sent Edwin Chadwick to investigate conditions in towns in the 1840's. In 1858, after the Great Stink, they hired Bazalgette and funded his work. They passed 3 acts to keep towns safe, and in 1853 brought in a law that every baby had to be vaccinated against smallpox, and gave Edward Jenner £30,000 to open a vaccination clinic.
        • Communications: Edwin Chadwick's report was published in newspapers and sold to the public. The government also put out posters in towns to warn people about the dangers of cholera.
        • Science and Technology: Joseph Bazalgette drew sewer plans to collect house waste and take it to the Thames, and then pump it out to the sea.
        • Individuals: Edwin Chadwick wrote a report on the conditions in towns, Edward Jenner was a scientist who did a smallpox experiment, proving that giving cowpox germs made you immune to smallpox. His technique was called vaccinations. John Snow investigated cholera, mapping out deaths and realising they all got water from the same pump, which later got shut down. Joseph Bazalgette made the sewage system, and Louis Pasteur looked at beer in a brewery and why it was going off. He found microorganisms, proving the air contained living organisms. Florence Nightingale was asked to go to a hospital in the Crimean War , and ended up sterilising the hospital.
      • Present Day
        • Government: The Liberal Party had several welfare reforms, starting with the Midwives Act in 1902. School children were given free school meals, and were examined and treated in schools, pensions were given , and the National Insurance Act and the Ministry of Health were set up. In 1946, a Bill of Parliament was passed for the National Health Service.
        • Science and Technology: X-ray machines were discovered, and dyes that stained specific microbes were used to identify which chemicals could be combined to make drugs. Salvarson 606 and Prontosil were made, two drugs that could cure disease and not harm the body.
        • Individuals: William Beveridge invented the free national health service to tackle the five giant killers; want, ignorance, disease, squalor and idleness. Paul Ehlrich built on Koch's work to try and find a cure for syphilis. He used dyes that stained specific microbes to combine with other chemicals. The 606th compound was effective. Gerhardt Domagk discovered Prontosil after it worked on cases of blood poisoning. Fleming, Florey and Chain discovered penicillin after an unknown bacteria was being killed by a mould. They froze the mould and made it into a drug.
    • War: Medics and doctors became more experienced when dealing with wounds, and performing minor surgery and amputations in the Roman army.
    • Communications: Galen and Hippocrates wrote books about their findings.
    • Religion: People believed in treatments such as praying, using healing shrines and offering to Salus, God of Health.
    • Individuals: Galen came up with the Theory of the Opposites, and Hippocrates invented the Theory of the Four Humours.
    • Science and Technology: Doctors had basic tools, and sewage systems and aqueducts were built to help improve health and hygiene.


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