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  • medicine
    • roman times
      • treatments could be based on bloodletting or purging (four humours), mixed with prayers to the god of health
        • prayers and offerings to gods were made.
          • most illnesses or injuries were treated by the father, using remedies which were passed down from his father.
        • celtic and druid knowledge of herbs and plants was used in Britain to make medicines.
          • some remedies were used throughout the empire and some were written down.
    • the black death.
      • symptoms included: swelling of the lymph glands into large lumps filled with pus, fever and chills, headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.
    • 1350
      • physicians: medically trained at university and passed exams, diagnosed illnesses and gave treatments or sent patients to the apothecary or barber surgeon, expensive, so mainly used by the wealthy, very few of them, with women physicians incredibly rare
        • barber surgeons: no training, carried out bloodletting, pulling teeth and lancing boils, also cut hair! did basic surgery such as amputating limbs, (very low success rate). they cost less than a physician.
          • monks and nuns: ran hospitals using church donations, cared for the elderly or poor, rather than people with common diseases, some hospitals ran for a specific use, such as leprosy, which kept sufferers away from others. its also free.
          • housewife physicians: usually a village wise woman or lady of the manor who treated local people. dealt with childbirth and common injuries/ illnesses (broken bones, sore throats,) mixed herb and plant remedies
    • the renaissance
      • technology: better microscope lenses helped discover bacteria, the invention of mechanical pumps helped people understand that the human body worked like a machine. most importantly, the printing press was invented in the mid 15th century, allowing ideas and discoveries to be published and widely circulated.
        • impact on medicine: causes of diseases were still not understood, harveys and vesalius' ideas were slow to be accepted, medical teaching was still mainly based on galen's theories and old treatment methods were still being used.
  • treatments included: praying and holding lucky charms, cutting open buboes to drain the puss, holding bread against the buboes, then burying it in the ground, eating cool things and taking cold baths.

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