Medical Ethics, Religious Studies, GCSE

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  • Medical Ethics
    • Abortion
      • when a women terminates or ends the life of a developing foetus in her womb
        • Pro-life: a movement against abortion which is seen as murder
          • Pro-Choice: a movement for abortion because it is seen as the women's choice
      • Religious Teachings
        • Catholics would be against abortion because they believe that God created all life and it is sacred
          • The unborn baby should have the same rights as all people. They would emphasise the teachings of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, 'You Shall Not Murder'
          • They believe it is better to go through with the pregnancy then put the child up for adoption
            • Religious Teachings
              • Catholics would be against abortion because they believe that God created all life and it is sacred
                • The unborn baby should have the same rights as all people. They would emphasise the teachings of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, 'You Shall Not Murder'
                • They believe it is better to go through with the pregnancy then put the child up for adoption
                • some Christians also follow Jerimiah 'Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you before you were born I set you apart'
                  • implying that God has a plan and we should not intervere
                • Protestants
                  • believe that life is sacred but sometimes abortion is necessary
                    • they also would follow 'love thy neighbour' the neighbour is the pregnant women and we should follow her needs
                    • Abortion is acceptable if: the baby was a result of rape, the baby was handicapped or the mothers life was in danger
          • some Christians also follow Jerimiah 'Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you before you were born I set you apart'
            • implying that God has a plan and we should not intervere
          • Protestants
            • believe that life is sacred but sometimes abortion is necessary
              • they also would follow 'love thy neighbour' the neighbour is the pregnant women and we should follow her needs
              • Abortion is acceptable if: the baby was a result of rape, the baby was handicapped or the mothers life was in danger
      • Euthanasia
        • 'an easy and gentle death'
        • voluntary euthanasia is when the person concerned asks someone to help them die
        • Involuntary euthanasia is when relatives or medical experts decide to end a life when the person is not able to make the decision themselves
        • Religious Teachings
          • The Catholic Church and the Church of England believe it is acceptable to refuse life-preserving medical treatment to let nature take its course. Christians support the 'Hospice movement' which help people to die with dignity
      • Suicide
        • In the past people who have committed suicide could not be buried on human ground because it was believed the individual had no faith in god
        • Euthanasia and Suicide
          • Some Christians (Quakers) believe that if someone is suffering they should be allowed to die.
            • they believe that love and support should be given to the people that believe suicide is the only option
              • "Love thy neighbour as yourself"
          • Atheists and Agnostics
            • ending human suffering through euthanasia would be similar to outing an animal out of misery and seen as a loving thing to do
            • also, people may argue that Christian churches talk about letting nature run its course but on many occasions when it comes to medical ethics people are kept alive longer through medical and technological advances in healthcare. If god gave us knowledge to reduce suffering why aren't we allowing it when it comes to Euthanasia
      • IVF
        • IVF is given to a couple who are unable to conceive naturally; Artificial Insemination by Donor.
        • some Christians would argue that you are 'Playing God' and going against what God wanted and nature intended
          • " Hannah had no children because the Lord has closed her womb"  some Christians would say that this shows god plans for some people to be childless
            • other Christians would argue that a loving God would want people to use technology to have children. They would also emphasise the idea that Jesus went around 'healing' those who needed healing therefore God would accept this idea of healing through medical techniques
        • Controversies:  similar to having an abortion, human embryos are destroyed once the mother hads no use for them. could be argue the embryos were potential life therefore seen as murder. The use of artificial insemination could be seen as adultery. An alternative would be adoption which is seen as more loving.
      • Cloning
        • DNA Cloning: multiple identical copies are made of a DNA sequence
        • Reproductive Cloning: used to produce and animal hat has the same DNA as another
        • Therapeutic Cloning: This is the production of human embryos in order to gather stem cells
        • Responses to Cloning
          • Destruction of embryo seen as murder. Only God is seen as the giver of life. Christians recognise that God has given us the intelligence to use science to develop cloning and cure human disease. Seen as a loving act as it saves lives.
          • some churches have no problem with T.Cloning because Thomas Aquinas held a view that a male foetus received a soul after 40 days and a female after 90. Embryos are only used within the first 14 days of development and are then disposed of
      • Animal Research
        • Christian Teachings
          • Humans are the most important part of Gods creation . They were given responsibility over animals and authority to control them. Humans have a soul and potential place in heaven animals don't. Adam named all the animals showing his control over them.
          • in the gospel of Mark, Jesus healed a man possessed by demons sending the demons into a herd of pigs
          • National Anti-Vivisection Society  used the results of the research to highlight animal research may not even benefit humans.

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