media influences on anti-soical behaviour

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  • Media influences on anti-social behaviour
    • Acting in a manner that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons
    • moise et al suggested  5 ways in which media influences anti-social behaviour
      • Observational learning and imitation
        • Bandura and ross demonstrated vicarious reinforcement
          • operant conditioning suggests that such behaviour would not be positively reinforced in the real world
          • ethical issues
          • demand characteristics
            • eg knowledge of the doll
        • Jamie Bulger
          • killed by two ten year olds who were said to be imitating behaviour they'd seen  the film ' childs play
        • Philips examined crime statistics after a televises heavyweight contest
          • significant increase in murders ten days following
          • little increase after the super bowl
          • naturalistic experiment
            • high ecological validity
            • correlational
              • cause and effect not established
                • eg increase in temperature can increase violence
        • reductionist
          • cognitive factors eg perception of violence
      • Cognitive priming
        • triggered aggressive thoughts
        • these aggressive thoughts make people more likely to go and commit aggressive acts
        • Josephson
          • hockey players were made to watch a film showing violent content
            • the actor was holding a walkie- talkie
              • they then played a game of hockey where the referee had a walkie talkie
                • those whod witnessed a violent film and were exposed to the walkie talkie were more violent
                  • the walkie talkie was a cue for aggression
          • field experiment
            • high ecological validity
            • less control of extraneous variables
          • biased sample
            • hockey can be an aggressive sport
      • Desensitisation
        • frequent viewing may lead to the child becoming less anxious about violence
        • view violence as the norm
          • more likely to engage in aggressive acts
          • however this may of been influences by their upbringing
            • leading to them watching more aggressive tv
        • dr cumberbatch argues this makes the child more frightened than frightening
        • gradual commitment
          • milgram
            • influences and increase in the violent programmes watched
      • lower physiological arousal
        • moise
          • boys who are heavy tv viewers show a reduced physiological arousal to scenes of violence
          • gender biased
            • boyles found this common
              • due to biological factors
        • self perception theory
          • a weak attitude to violence would lead to us using our response to form our attitude
        • cultivation theory
      • justification
        • the use of aggression by pro-social characters leads to an aura of moral justification
        • for example there are n consequences for james bond when he kills the bad guys
          • low everyday life application
    • singer
      • cartharsis
        • viewing of aggression allows us to release aggression that has build up
          • beneficial effect
    • Charlton et al
      • st Helena project
        • very little change in the level of crime
      • tv first introduced in 1995
    • biological factors into aggression

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