Media Represenations

  • Created by: brooke34
  • Created on: 01-05-19 16:01
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  • Representations
    • Gender
      • MULVEY  (male gaze) Women are portrayed from the point of view of men for visual pleasure of heterosexual man - camera lingers over curves
      • WOLFE (beauty myth) ideal given to women through the media, this pressure felt to adhere to unrealistic standards. This will lead to unhealthy behaviours.
      • GAUNTLETT  (metrosexual man) rise of GQ magazines showed men to be emotional and caring - still uses images of traditional looking 'man'
      • EASTHORPE(the masculine myth) view men to be strong,aggressive and violent
      • Liberal feminist would say progression to better view of women.
      • Radical say that creates false consciousness as shows only way to be happy is to be pretty.
      • Pluarlist says if there was an issue then wouldn't consume products aimed at people
      • Marxists say they're used to sell products and reinforce consumerism
      • Post Modernists - there's diversity in the media now.
    • Age
      • Childhood
        • child-centred as need priority over others - more educations etc
        • Toxic childhood - negative effects (grooming)
          • Feminist would say it introduces stereotypes at an early age and sticks through life
      • Youths
        • Cohen said moral panics - events exaggerated
        • constructed by lifestyle (sex and drugs)
        • subcultures - immoral and anti-authority
        • Marxists say used as form as control for world of work
        • Functionalist say reinforces social values and so leads to consensus
        • Pluralists say there's variety in the types of young people
      • Elderly
        • NEWMAN - often seen as high status roles BUT older women are exiled to radio while older men and put with young female news casters
        • JANTZ ET AL - see as a burden, dependent.
    • Ethnicity
      • Van Dijk - content analysis and said blacks stereotyped to
        • Criminals - most frequent coverage is criminal / gang related
        • Moral Panics - WATSON - black mugger result of rise in rap music
        • Threat - from immigrants who only want to take advantage of welfare
        • Unimportant - police take approach to not care as white life is more important EG Stephen Lawrence
      • Pluralist say there's been an improvement
      • BEST AND KELLER  - rap culture on estates, showed as symbol of black identity
      • Marxists - lead to false consciousness and cause of capitalism - reinforce white cultural values
      • Post Modernists say variety in representations that shows how multicultural Britain is
      • Not just blacks - asians seen as very sturn and focued on study and white often the  lead role and seen as powerful
    • Class
      • Working Class
        • Often seen as an a problem NEWMAN said seen to drink to much etc
        • NEWMAN said few tv shows in recent years
        • CURRAN - papers aimed at the W.C assume they're not interested in things like politics but focus on celebrities
          • Marxists see this as an attempt to destract from inequality of capitalism
      • Middle Class
        • most media professionals are M.C
        • Interests are usually over represented
        • Assume all concerns to be the same (decline of moral standards)
      • CHAVS
        • MacDonald says media makes poverty look like the fault of their own (drug abuse)
        • Dismissed as criminals or deviant
        • NEWMAN said medias attention is on worst examples - stereotypes
        • Marginal coverage in the media
      • Wealthy (monarch)
        • used to reinforce sense on national identity
        • massive attention to events such as weddings etc.
      • Neo-marxist say little attention to inequalities / class conflcts
      • Marxist say that rich people are rewarded for 'talent' not hard work
      • Pluralists say its good as teaches to celebrate success - makes people want to work hard to achieve
    • Disability
      • Use images for charity and less focus on the person - make us pity them
      • BARNES -  viewed as super(have powers) burdens (news focus on the carers) victims (more likely to die in dramas) not seen to have sexual desires
      • ROSS asked viewers with disabilities and found; show anger towards themselves, restricted number, show can't have a 'normal' life
      • ROPER - makes the public feel guilt

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