Media Effects Models

  • Created by: brooke34
  • Created on: 03-02-19 14:10
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  • Media Effects Models
    • Hypodermic Syringe
      • Media passively receives and accepts messages 'injected' into them
      • Direct correlation between media messages and behaviour in real life.
        • Filled with dominant ideology,images and messages and instantly goes and acts out
      • Young people are vulnerable to media content as still in early socialisation
      • Violent crimes often explained this way (James Bulger)
      • DWORKIN - correlation between **** and sexual violence
      • NORRIS - political issues and voting behaviour
      • Audiences are diverse and react in different ways.
      • Children are more intelligent and not as vulnerable as thought
      • Gauntlett said it lacks ecological validity
      • Ignores that can act as catharsis (violent games)
    • Cultural Effects
      • Marxists sees media as powerful ideological influence.
      • Concerned with capitalist values and norms
      • Powerful and gradual 'preferred media'
      • Says less immediate than HSM
      • Ideological messages reflect values of those who own media
      • Eventually people accept preferred reading of events in mass media
      • PHILO - looked at strikes and those who lacked experience are likely to accept preferred reading
      • underestimate state regulation
      • Anti-establishment programmes are made
      • Programmes created based on preferences not ideological forced
      • Messages are polysemic and interpreted differently
    • Two-Step Flow
      • Personal relationships effect what media messages we accept and reject
      • Social media is made of opinion leaders (strong ideas)
        • Exposed to various media types and form opinion on their content
          • These are then passed on to their circle
      • Not directly influenced but choose to adopt some after negotiation
      • Vernetee - OL seen in fashion industry and magazines appeal to these so adverts are placed
      • May be consensus about messages so no dominant OL
      • Some members of the audience may not have access
      • Ignores possibility that might be imposed by the powerful
      • Says there's no direct link between messages and influence
    • Selective Filter
      • Make a choice (not to play violent games so not effected by messages)
      • Exposure - choose to view
      • Perception - may not accept message
      • Retention - message has to 'stick'
      • Some messages are hard to filter out
      • People remember things they have broad agreement with
      • Diverse so filter apply differently
    • Uses and Gratifications
      • view things for needs (bio, psych or social)
        • Depend on age,gender, class ethnicity
      • Wood - how horror films are used for excitement
      • Diversion - use to escape problems
      • Relationships- decline of community in lives
      • Diversity - cope with unsure identity
      • Surveillance - obtain info about social world
      • Recognises diversity in active audiences
      • Marxists critical as says socially produced so false
    • Reception Analysis
      • Interpret in own ways so pointless to talk about
      • MORLEY - preferred, oppositional and negotiated
        • The Undatables - Pre = positive Opp = exploits Neg = shows normal
      • Some messages are too powerful to ignore
      • Recognises diversity in audiences

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