Media Control

  • Created by: HBN_18
  • Created on: 10-12-18 09:28
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  • MEDIA CONTROLS
    • What are the Media?
      • Traditional
        • Mass media communicating one-way messages to a very large mass audience.
          • Audience presumed to be all homogeneous
            • Having the same characteristics and interests
      • New Media
        • Interactive, Digital technology used for the distribution and consumption of new digitised media content.
          • E.g Computers and internet
      • Social Media
        • Websites and online means of communication between a large mass of people where they create, share and exchange information
    • Formal Controls on the Media
      • The Law
        • Laws of Libel -  forbid the publication of an untrue statement
        • The Official Secrets Acts - criminal offence to report without authorisation any government activity
        • Defence and Security Media Advisory Notices (DSMA) - Government requests to journalism to not report defence and counter -terrorist infomation
        • The Racial and Religious Hatred Act (2006) - forbid expressions that will encourage discrimination against people of their ethnic group or religious beliefs
        • Obscene Publications Act (1959) - Forbid the publication of anything obscene and indecent
        • Contempt of Court - forbids the publication of material about cases in process
      • Media Regulator
        • Ofcam (Office of Communications) -
          • Ensuring a wide range of television, radio, electronic media e.t.c. are available in the UK with high quality services
          • Protecting the public from any offensive or potentially harmful effects of broadcasting media
          • Furthering the interests of consumers
          • Securing the best use of the radio spectrum
      • The BBC
        • Queen appointed members of the BBC trust govern the BBC alongside Ofcam
        • Has a clear duty to represent the interest of license fee-payers and to ensure the BBC remains independent.
        • Not dependant on advertising for funding.
    • Government Influence
      • Official Government Press Conference
        • Held so the government show their position in the media on contemporary issues.
      • Leaks and off-the-record briefings
        • The Government releases unofficial information to their favoured journalist.
      • Government Spin Doctors
        • Releasing a red herring when the governments releases bad news or unpopular news in order to cover it up and distract the media audiences.
      • Broadcasting License Refusal
        • Refusal to issue broadcasting licenses to people they deem unfit  and unsuitable.
      • Filtering
        • Refusal to allow access to some internet sites and computer software.
    • Surveillance
      • Electronic surveillance of emails, monitoring websites and intercepting phone calls.
    • APPROACHES
      • Manipulative/ Instrumentalist Approach
        • Marxist
          • Miliband
            • Owners directly control media content and manipulate media audiences to protect their profits and spread the dominant ideology
          • Curran and Seaton (2010) Media owners do intefer and manipulate newspaper content
            • EXAMPLE
              • Rupert Murdoch was pro-Iraq - all of his 175 Newspapers in the world backed him
              • Murdoch admitted that he uses his control of the Sun to convince audiences which party to back in the general election.
          • Harold Evans (2011, 2012) - Murdoch pressed editorial staff to adopt hid right-wing conservative views.
            • EXAMPLE
              • The Leveson Inquiry( 2012) found a range of links between the media owners and the government
                • In return for favourable government policies that benefit the media owners
          • Media audiences are passive and easily manipulated
          • HOWEVER
            • Pluralist
              • Wide range of opinions in the media and media's owners are primarily focused on making profit
              • And Neophiliacs
                • Citizen Journalism has undermined traditional of media owners and given more power to ordinary people
                  • Citizen Journalism
                    • Members of the public report news stories and infomation
            • Audiences are not as gullible as the manipulative approach suggests
      • Dominant ideology or hegemonic approach
        • Mass Media spread a dominant ideology justifying the power of the ruling class
          • Recognises the power of owners but say the content of the media is left to the hands of managers and journalists
            • Neo-Marxists
              • Gramsci
                • Hegemony
                  • The dominant class' set of values and beliefs are accepted by other social classes as the norm
        • HOWEVER
          • Owners appoint and dismiss managers and editors that stray far from the line
          • Instrumentalist Approach
            • Agenda-Setting
              • The power to manage which issues are to be presented and which are to be kept in the background
            • Gatekeeping
              • When the media refuse to cover some issues and therefore not allow the public access to certain infomation
          • Pluralists
            • Rise of globalised digital media and internet undermine traditional influence of media owners
        • Journalists and Managers need to make a profit
          • News Values
            • The values of the journalists which guide them in choosing what is 'newsworthy' what to report and to exclude and how event should be presented
              • Therefore there may be a range of criticising media with the attention of attracting audiences
                • This is to maintain the pretence that the media is unbiased.
              • Managers and journalists support the dominant ideology by choice
                • EXAMPLE
                  • Philo (2012)
                    • Study of media coverage of the 2008 global banking crisis
                      • Media focused attention on the solution offered by the Bankers that caused the issue in the first place
                        • Therefore audiences are persuaded to see the dominant ideology as a consensus
                          • And reinforces and encourages continued acceptance of the ruling-class ideology
                • This is because they are usually white, middle-class and male
              • Therefore the way events are reported are influenced by the dominant ideology and the audience is only exposed to a limited range of opinions
      • The Pluralist Appraoch
        • The power in society is spread a wide variety of groups and individuals
          • With no single one having a monopoly of power
        • Mass Media is focused on making a profit
          • The competition prevents one owner or company from dominating the media
            • Regulators like Ofcom also prevent this
        • Pick 'n' Mix Approach
          • Audiences are free to choose whatever interpretation suit them thanks to the wide range of media
            • Aided by the new globalised digital media and social media
              • And Citizen Journalism
                • EXAMPLE
                  • Ordinary people post on Twitter and on Blogger and report on events by using sites such as Youtube
        • HOWEVER
          • Media owners strongly influence who is appointed at senior levels
          • The most powerful groups are more likely to be interviewed on TV and their views are given greater weight than those of less powerful groups
          • Only the very rich have the resources to launch major media companies to get their views across independantly
          • To attract audiences there is has been an increase in tabloidisation
            • EXAMPLE
              • Barnett and Seymour (1999)
                • and Curran et al (2009)
                  • Studies that showed that media was becoming more entertainment-centred leading to citizens knowing a  limited knowledge of public affairs
            • Tablodisation
              • Decline in serious news reporting and increase in sensationalised media
          • Hegemonic theorists state that consumers have been socialised by the media   and have influenced their tastes
            • Therefore the audiences wnat what the media owner want.

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