SUPERPOWERS - Mechanism's of power

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  • mechanisms of power
    • hard power
      • using military and economic influence (sanctions and trade deals) to force another country to act in a particular way.
        • expensive and risky but gets results.
        • some may view as unnecessary or illegal, meaning the aggressor may lose allies.
    • soft power
      • Uses subtle persuasion by use of appealing ideologies and cultural attractiveness, as well as diplomacy (political persuasion).
        • relies on a country having respected culture, values and politics which may not persuade all countries.
        • it is low-cost due to being about creating friendly alliances.
      • 1-USA, 2-UK, 3-FRANCE, 4-GERMANY.
    • smart power
      • Joseph Nye (a political scientist) suggests that the most successful 21st century countries are those that combine hard and soft power.
    • Mackinder's geo-strategic location theory (Heartland)
      • persuaded the UK and USA that Russia needed to be contained so it did not spread further and get larger.
        • Control of physical resources around it was important
          • SINCE 21ST CENTURY - this theory seemed old fashioned.
            • New technologies (ballistic missiles, drones, aircraft carriers) can invade inside another countries territory.
              • Physical resources are traded internationally meaning there is less need to  have them secured.
              • Conflict is seen as abnormal now compared to the past.
                • Soft power has become more common, but hard power still exists.
                  • Annexation of Crimea by Russian federation in 2014.


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