# Measuring Waves

- Created by: JC:8-9-9
- Created on: 22-12-18 08:53

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- Measuring Waves
- Make a phone call -> sound waves converted to electrical waves. Intercontinental phone call, waves carried by electromagnetic waves from ground transmitters to satellites in space & back to ground recievers-> converted back to electrical waves-> sound waves.
- Electronic circuits ensure sound waves similar to original sound waves. Engineers who design and maintain communications - measure diff types of waves at diff stages, so waves not distorted.

- Key Terms
- Displacement
- Of vibrating particle - distance & direction from its equilibrium position

- Amplitude
- Max displacement of vibrating particle. Transverse- height of wave crest / depth of trough from equilibrium position

- Wavelength
- Least distance between 2 adjacent vibrating particles - same displacement & velocity at same time i.e. adjacent crests.

- Cycle
- From max displacement to next max displacement

- Period
- Time for 1 complete wave to pass fixed point

- Frequency
- No. of cycles of vibration of a particle per second/ passing point per send. Hz
- Period of wave = 1/f

- No. of cycles of vibration of a particle per second/ passing point per send. Hz

- Displacement
- Wave speed
- Higher frequency of wave, shorter wavelength. i.e. rope(peaks closer together) , ripple-tank(constant f). Frequency higher, waves closer.
- Crests of straight waves travelling at constant speed in ripple tank.- each wave crest is travels distance equal to wavelength in time taken for 1 cycle.
- Speed of waves c= distance travelled in 1 cycle/ time taken for 1 cycle
- = wavelength/(1/f)=f x wavelength
- Wave speed c=f x wavelength

- = wavelength/(1/f)=f x wavelength

- Speed of waves c= distance travelled in 1 cycle/ time taken for 1 cycle

- Phase Difference
- Between 2 vibrating particles at same frequency is fraction of cycle, 1 cycle- 360 degrees= 2 pi radians.
- Phase Difference in radians= 2 x pi x distance apart on wave / wavelength
- Particles O,P,Q,R,S- spaced ~1/4 of wavelength apart.

- Phase Difference in radians= 2 x pi x distance apart on wave / wavelength

- Between 2 vibrating particles at same frequency is fraction of cycle, 1 cycle- 360 degrees= 2 pi radians.

- Make a phone call -> sound waves converted to electrical waves. Intercontinental phone call, waves carried by electromagnetic waves from ground transmitters to satellites in space & back to ground recievers-> converted back to electrical waves-> sound waves.

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