Measuring Waves

  • Created by: JC:8-9-9
  • Created on: 22-12-18 08:53
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  • Measuring Waves
    • Make a phone call -> sound waves converted to electrical waves. Intercontinental phone call, waves carried by electromagnetic waves from ground transmitters to satellites in space & back to ground recievers-> converted back to electrical waves-> sound waves.
      • Electronic circuits ensure sound waves similar to original sound waves. Engineers who design and maintain communications - measure diff types of waves at diff stages, so waves not distorted.
    • Key Terms
      • Displacement
        • Of vibrating particle - distance & direction from its equilibrium position
      • Amplitude
        • Max displacement of vibrating particle. Transverse- height of wave crest / depth of trough from equilibrium position
      • Wavelength
        • Least distance between 2 adjacent vibrating particles - same displacement & velocity at same time i.e. adjacent crests.
      • Cycle
        • From max displacement to next max displacement
      • Period
        • Time for 1 complete wave to pass fixed point
      • Frequency
        • No. of cycles of vibration of a particle per second/ passing  point per send. Hz
          • Period of wave = 1/f
    • Wave speed
      • Higher frequency of wave, shorter wavelength. i.e. rope(peaks closer together) , ripple-tank(constant f). Frequency higher, waves closer.
      • Crests of straight waves travelling at constant speed in ripple tank.- each wave crest is travels distance equal to  wavelength in time taken for 1 cycle.
        • Speed of waves c= distance travelled in 1 cycle/ time taken for 1 cycle
          • = wavelength/(1/f)=f x wavelength
            • Wave speed c=f x wavelength
    • Phase Difference
      • Between 2 vibrating particles at same frequency is fraction of cycle, 1 cycle- 360 degrees= 2 pi radians.
        • Phase Difference in radians= 2 x pi x distance apart on wave / wavelength
          • Particles O,P,Q,R,S- spaced ~1/4 of wavelength apart.

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