Multi Culturalism LCW Unfinished

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  • Multi Culturalism
    • Origins
      • By 2000 MC societies were everywhere
      • Terrorism & radical Islam strengthened the case for MC to keep extremism at bay.
      • 1960's Black consciouness
      • Post war western Europe
    • Features
      • Post colonialism
        • Post 1945
          • New attitudes amongst the newly independent countries.
          • Challenge Euro-centrism, hegemony of Western imperial ideas and assumptions
          • Rejected the universalist pretentions of western liberal ideology
          • Gandhi - Indian nationalism
          • 1960's black nationalism
            • assertions of own cultural identity
              • Gandhi - Indian nationalism
      • Pluralist MC
        • Accepts equal validity and legitimacy of liberal ideas, illiberal ideas and non liberal ideas - even though they may be incompatible.
    • Identity politics
      • Perceives people in terms of their cultural characteristics
      • Language, religion and ethnicity shape personal and social identity.
      • Particularism
        • Cultural differences between people and societies are more importance than what they have in common.
      • Gives people a sense of rootedness
      • Differences should be celebrated
    • Minority Rights
      • Collective entitlements of representation, self government and legal protections.
        • E.g. dress codes and religious holidays.
      • 'Positive discrimination' in education, work or political representation
      • Generates controversial questions of apology or compensation for past disadvantages or discrimination.
        • Can be viewed as unfair or counterproductive
      • Hinder integration of cultural groups into wider society.
      • UK's ban on expressing religious hatred, but this conflicts with liberal notions of freedom of expression.
    • Diversity
      • Cultural differences are compatible with citizenship and social/ political cohesion.
      • Believe that a denial of cultural diversity may generate resentment, isolation and extremism.
      • Is a risk that encouraging cultural diversity may weaken people's sense of their own identity.
      • Undermine social stability or political unity.
    • Critical perspectives on MC
      • Conservatism
        • Security-seeking individuals and a stable society require cultural homogeneity.
        • It is a threat to social cohesion and majority interests and 'diversity within unity' is a myth.
          • Assimilation and restrictions on immigration, or even repatriation, are favoured.
      • Socialism
        • It is not a lack of cultural recognition which encumbers some groups, but the lack of economic power and social status.
        • MC is a form of 'divide and rule' of oppressed and exploited classes.
        • It may distract or detract from redistributive and welfare politics and narrow peoples senses of a wider social responsibility.
        • Marxists call it a form of 'false consciousness'.
      • Liberalism
        • MC is collectivist which conflicts with liberal individualism.
          • Some forms of MC may impinge on human rights and freedoms, or toleration.
        • Emphasis on the value of diversity and particularism conflicts with liberal universalism.
      • Feminism
        • Objects to patriarchal cultures which legitimise and perpetuate the oppression of women in their power structures, family arrangements, moral or dress codes.
          • E.g. FGM, arrange marriages.

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