Bowlby's theory on Maternal Deprivation

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  • MATERNAL DEPRIVATION
    • SEPARATION VS DEPRIVATION
      • Separation - the child not being in the presence of the PCG
        • Becomes a issue if the child is deprived
          • I.E lose an element of her care
        • Extended separation can lead to deprivation (which causes harm)
    • BOWLBY'S THEORY 1951
      • Continual presence of nurture from a mother is essential for babies and toddlers
        • Emotionally and intellectually
      • 'mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and protein for physical health'
    • EFFECTS ON DEVELOPMENT
      • Intellectual development
        • Suffer mental retardation
          • Abnormally low IQ
      • Emotional development
        • Affectionless psychopathy
          • inability to experience guilt or strong emotions for others
          • Prevents the person developing normal relationships and associated with criminality
    • BOWLBY'S 44 THEIVES STUDY
      • AIM
        • Examined the link between affectionless psychopathy and maternal deprivation
      • METHOD
        • 44 criminal teenagers - accused of stealing
        • Interviewed for signs of affectionless psychopathy
          • Characterised as lack of affection, lack of guilt about their actions and lack of empathy of their victims
          • Families interviewed to see if 'theives' had prolonged seperation
        • Controlled group - non-criminal but emotionally disturbed young people was set up
          • How often maternal deprivation occurred in non thieves
      • FINDINGS
        • 14 of 44 - affectionless psychopath
          • 12 of 14 had experienced prolonged separation of first 2 years
          • 5 of the remaining 30 had experienced seperation
        • Controlled group - 2 of 44 had experienced long seperation
      • CONCLUSION
        • Prolonged early separation caused affectionless psychopthy
    • A03
      • Evidence may be poor
        • Goldfarb
          • Orphaned during second war
            • Traumatised and poor after care
              • These factors may have caused it not seperation
        • 44 thieves
          • Bias
            • Bowlby interviewed them all
      • Counter-evidence
        • Hilda Lewis 1954
          • Replicated 44 study - larger scale of 500
            • Prolonged separation did not predict criminality
      • Critical period is more of a sensitive period
        • Jarmila Koluchova 1976
          • Twin boys from Czechoslovakia
            • Isolated from 18 moths until 7 years old (step mum kept them locked in a cupboard)
              • Looked after 2 adults and recoverd fully
                • Period may be sensitive but not 'critical'
      • Animal studies show effects of maternal deprivation
        • Levy et al. 2003
          • Separation baby rats from mother for as little as a day had a permanent effect on their social development

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