Graphic Products - Material and Compounds

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  • Materials and Components
    • Paper and Board
      • Paper
        • Cartridge Paper
          • Has a textured surface, which is great for sketching with pencils, crayons, pastels, gouache, inks and water colours
        • Layout Paper
          • Is thin and translucent 9 you can see light through it and is used for general design work, particularly sketching ideas
        • Bleed-proof paper
          • is used by designers when drawing wit felt tips and marker pens. The ink doesn't bleed (spread out)
        • Tracing paper
          • Is translucent and is used to copy images
        • Virgin paper is made from new wood pulp, not recycled material
        • Paper can be laminated
          • If you laminate paper by adding a layer of another material you get a composite with different qualities
            • Composite is made up of two or more different materials
            • Aluminum
              • A combination of paper and aluminium foil is used to package food.
                • This keeps flavours in and air out and you can print graphics onto it
            • Polythene
              • paper can be coated with polythene to make it waterproof
                • This can then be used for paper cups, where normal paper would go soggy pretty quickly
            • Polystyrene
              • Foam core board is made by laminating polystyrene foam between card
                • Its stiff but lightweight and is used for mounting posters and making models
          • Paper can also be made into spiral wound tubes
            • Made from paper wound in a spiral and held together with glue
              • They can be given a nice finish as they paper is easy to print on
              • Made for things like fireworks, toilet rolls and snack containers
      • Board
        • Solid white board
          • has a high quality bleached surface, which is ideal for printing. It is used for primary packaging - packaging for individual items
        • Mount board
          • Is used to mount drawings and photographs for presentation or framing
        • Corrugated card
          • is used a lot in secondary packaging to protect products during transit. its made up of a fluted inner core, sandwiched between two outer layers - this makes the material very durable and sturdy
        • Duplex board
          • has a different colour and texture on each side. It is often used when only one surface is seen, so only one side needs to be smooth for printing. Its unbleached, so it is ideal for food packaging
        • Grey board
          • It is rigid. it is also easy to cover with paper so that graphcis can be printed onto it. it is found in game boards, hardback books, ring binder and covered boxes
      • The weight of paper and board is measured in gsm (grams per square metre) if the paper weighs 200gsm or over it is considered board
      • Board is often made of recycled paper
        • Paper and board are biodegradable - they will rot away quickly
      • Paper and board are both made from wood pulp
      • If the wood pulp comes from a well managed forest, the paper and board are fairly sustainable
      • Most types of paper and board are recyclable. Lots of cardboard is made form recycled materials making it more environmentally friendly
    • Plastics
      • There are many different types of thermoplastic
        • Acetate
          • Flexible, hard, shiny and transparent or translucent
          • Used when the products are needed to be seen and for projector transparencies
          • Mostly made out of wood so is more sustainable than many plastics
        • Polypropylene
          • Quite strong, tough and flexible
          • Products can be made with a living hinge - box, lid and hinge all made out of polypropylene
          • Also used for packaging, chairs, textiles, and car parts
        • High impact polystyrene
          • Rigid and comes in a variety of colours and thicknesses
            • Used for making boxes for products and vaccum forming
          • Is fairly cheap
        • Polyvinyl chloride
          • cheap, durable, easy to print on, but is quite brittle
            • used for bister packets (holding tablets etc) viyl records, insulation for electrical wires etc
    • Modern and Smart materials
      • the development of these materials allow new products to be made and problems with current products to be solved
        • Modern materials are developed though the invention of new or improved processes
          • Cornstarch Polymers
            • made form maize (sweetcorn)
              • Can be made in a clear, flexible form for sandwich packaging, disposal cups etc. Also used for compostable bags
          • PotatoPak
            • Made out of dried potato starch that is baked inside moulds.
              • Its fairly rigid and lightweight
              • Used to make plates, trays and packaging for food
          • Paper Foam
            • Composite of potato starch and paper fibres
              • its light weight and printable
                • it can be used in CD, DVD and mobile phone packaging
        • Smart Materials are materials that change their properties due to a stimulus from the environment eg. light or heat, and change back to their original state when the stimulus is removed
          • Thermochromic materials
            • They change colour with heat and change back again when they cool down
            • thermochromic paints can be used to create images that change, when the temperature changes
            • Thermochromic ink can be used for warning patches that tell you if something is too hot e.g. on computer chips. The ink will change colour when it gets hotter. they can be cheaper and more reliable than electronic heat warnigns
          • Phosphorescent materials
            • Materials that glow in the dark
            • They first absorb light then emit it when it is in the dark
        • Precious metal clay is used to make jewellery
          • it is a new material that contains particles of metal in a binding material
            • The clay is easy to work with, you can roll it, cut it, and shape it
              • When the clay is heated the binder burns away and the metal fuses together to create a solid metal object
                • After it is heated you can solder and polish it
    • Fillers and finishing
      • Fillers prepare surfaces for finishing
        • Plaster filler is a powder that you mix with water into a thick paste. it can fill small cracks and improve the surface finish of foam models
          • If you were suing wood, it would be best to use a wood filler
      • You need to prepare surfaces before applying a filler
        • KEYING - First you need to rub the surface down with sandpaper to give the filler a rough surface to stick too
  • How to pick the right paper and board
    • Cost and quality
      • Using expensive paper and board makes your item high quality, but it also adds to the price of the final product
        • so it is only worth using expensive material for luxury products or for something that needs to last long like certificates
    • Flexibility and Rigidity
      • to make 3D products you ned to be using paper or board that can be bent or folded without breaking but is rigid enough to keep its shape
        • corrugated card is a good option when you need a strong stiff material
    • Strength and Weight
      • Stronger materials can withstand more force without breaking, meaning they will be good for heavy duty packaging or making products that will be handled a lot, corrugated card is an example
      • Stronger materials are usually heavier or bulkier adding to the transportation cost
      • The extra material will cause more fuel burnt which is bad for the environment
    • Environment and sustainability
  • Finish
    • How the material is with printing etc
      • Solid white board has an excellent surface for printing but you can save money by using a cheaper recycled board laminated with high quality paper
        • For something that doesn't need a good finish, can use plain recycled board
    • How to pick the right paper and board
      • Cost and quality
        • Using expensive paper and board makes your item high quality, but it also adds to the price of the final product
          • so it is only worth using expensive material for luxury products or for something that needs to last long like certificates
      • Flexibility and Rigidity
        • to make 3D products you ned to be using paper or board that can be bent or folded without breaking but is rigid enough to keep its shape
          • corrugated card is a good option when you need a strong stiff material
      • Strength and Weight
        • Stronger materials can withstand more force without breaking, meaning they will be good for heavy duty packaging or making products that will be handled a lot, corrugated card is an example
        • Stronger materials are usually heavier or bulkier adding to the transportation cost
        • The extra material will cause more fuel burnt which is bad for the environment
      • Environment and sustainability
  • Recycled paper and board may contain toxic chemicals = they are not suitable for packaging food
    • Laminated paper can be hard to recycle because it is difficult to separate the materials
    • using recycled materials preserves wood lands and saves energy
    • Plastics can be used for modelling
      • The plastics used for modelling arn't very strong but can be easily cut into shape
        • Corrugated plastic sheet
          • lightweight, rigid and weather proof
          • Made from polypropylene
          • Though it is stiff it can be bent into shapes so it is good for modelling objects with large flat surfaces and square edges
          • Also used for estate agent signs board and students folder etc
        • Machining foam
          • Much more compact tan expanded polystyrene, so you can work on *** wiht machine tools wihtout it crumbling
          • You can make detailed pieces that can be painted
          • Used for architectural models
    • Expanded polystyrene foam
      • light weight material that you can shape with a knife or a hot wire cutter
      • Some types are quite crumbly and are used for protective pakcaging
      • Other types have a fairly dense structure
      • The plastics used for modelling arn't very strong but can be easily cut into shape
        • Corrugated plastic sheet
          • lightweight, rigid and weather proof
          • Made from polypropylene
          • Though it is stiff it can be bent into shapes so it is good for modelling objects with large flat surfaces and square edges
          • Also used for estate agent signs board and students folder etc
        • Machining foam
          • Much more compact tan expanded polystyrene, so you can work on *** wiht machine tools wihtout it crumbling
          • You can make detailed pieces that can be painted
          • Used for architectural models
    • To find the right plastic to use for a product you need to compare all the plastics to the specification of the product
      • Look at the plastics strength, flexibility, rigidity, cost and quality, finish, weight, sustainability
    • Then wipe of all the dust
      • Apply filler to needed places and then let it dry until its hard
    • Sand the filler back to flat surface using a rough then smooth sandpaper
      • This process may ned to be repeated to get a really smooth surface
    • you can laminate paper or card
      • uses heat to sandwich paper or card between two layers of thin plastic
        • Gives a professionall look to posters, menus bookmarks etc
      • Gives a professionall look to posters, menus bookmarks etc

    Comments

    WalkerBrown

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    very detailed - great resource to share - thansks

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