resistanf materials-materials and compponents

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  • Materials and components
    • Materials
      • There are two types of timber, called hardwood and softwood
        • HARDWOODS-come from broad-leaved, deciduous trees,main hardwood timbers are ash, mahogany  beech and oak.
        • SOFTWOODS-come from coniferous trees,cone-bearing trees, such as cedar and pine
      • Metals: ferrous and non-ferrous
        • FERROUS METALS: contain iron. Examples are cast iron, mild steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, stainless steel
        • NON-FERROUS METALS:do not contain iron. Some common non-ferrous metals are aluminium, Duralumin, copper, zinc, brass and tin
      • PLASTICS
        • Natural sources of plastics include: plants, trees, animals, insects.
        • Synthetic plastics are chemically manufactured from: Crude oil, Coal, natural gas
        • THERMO-PLASTICS: can be heated and shaped many times
          • EXAMPLES: Polyamide(nylon), acrylic, polypropylene, polystyrene, polythene
        • THERMOSET PLASTICS: can only be heated and shaped once
          • EXAMPLE: Epoxy resin, Melamine formaldehyde, polyester resin and Urea formaldehyde
      • COMPOSITE MATERIALS:
        • Formed by combining a reinforcing materials such as wood pulp and glue.
        • ALLOYS ARE NOT COMPOSIITE MATERIALS
      • SMART MATERIALS
        • Are reactive materials. Their properties can be changed by exposure to stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields, stress, moisture and temperature.
          • Thermo-chromic pigments react to changes in temperature
          • Photo-chromic pigments react to changes in light levels
        • Nanomaterial:  Improve the mechanical properties of a material, such as stiffness or elasticity. When incorporated into polymers, they can be used as lightweight replacements for metals
    • WORKING PROPERTIES
      • CONDUCTIVITY                   Is the ability of a material to conduct heat or electrical energy
      • STRENGTH is the ability of a material to withstand a force without breaking or bending
      • ELASTICITY: is the ability of a material to bend and then to return to its original shape and size
      • PLASTICY Is the ability of a material to permanently change in shape
      • MALLEABILITY                    Is the ability of a material to permanently deform in all directions without cracking
      • DUCTILITY Is the ability of a material to deform, usually by stretching along its length
      • HARDNESS   Is the ability of a material to resist wear, scratching and indentation
      • TOUGHNESS is the ability of a material to withstand blows or sudden shocks without breaking
      • DURABILITY is the ability of a material to withstand wear, especially as a result of weathering
      • FUSIBILITY is the ability of a material to change into a liquid or molten state when heated to its melting point
    • COMPONENTS, JOINTS AND ADHESIVES
      • COMPONENTS:           Made from resistant materials are usually bought ready-made. The most common components are nails, screws, hinges and catches.
      • Permanent and temporary joints: may be assembled using adhesives, nails, rivets, or one of the heat processes of brazing, soldering or welding
      • Temporary fixings:  usually involve components with a screw thread, such as screws, nuts and bolts, or one of the many knock-down

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