Material Choice & Selection

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  • Material Choice & Selection
    • Functional Requirements
      • materials used in products should be perfectly suited to the function of the final product
      • Properties include, hardness, righty, weight, flexibility, buoyancy, colour or texture, environment and stability
    • Economic requirements
      • Correct costing and forecasting is fundamental in the manufacture of a product, not only in cost but in working and processing
      • costs incurred in the production of a product include time, labour costs, repair and servicing of machinery and electricity. new parts will require additional training for the workforce
      • more expensive materials can be justified as they are easier to machine and process
    • Manufacturing demands
      • products are manufactured using different processes and at different scales of production dependant on consumer demand.
        • Continuous , batch , mass , one-off
    • Material availability
      • Wood: sheet , plank or dowel form
      • Metal : sheet , plate , box section , tube, rod, wire coil
      • Plastic : sheet, block , granules, rod
    • Appropriate joining techniques
      • Permanent, once this joint has been constructed it cannot be reversed without causing damage
        • Welding joins two pieces of metal under heat, causes material to become molten and then  a joining material is added to mix them before they solidify
        • Brazing permanently joins metal such as copper and steel using an alloy made of copper and zinc
        • soldering is similar to brazing but carried out at lower temperatures
        • Riveting joins two pieces of metal using metal pins that are put through the sheets then hammered flat
        • Adhesives join materials using glues, e.g PVA , contact adhesive and epoxy resin
        • frame joints for joining wood, **** , halving, mortise and tenon , dovetail joint
      • semi-permanent, can be disassembled without causing damage to materials
        • Screws, nuts, bolts and washers used to hold two or more pieces of materials together
        • Snap joints used for joining moulded plastic components
        • Knock-down fittings join materials with screws, corner blocks used in self assembly or flat pack furniture


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