Mass Movements and Resultant Landforms

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  • Mass Movements and Resultant Landforms
    • Soil Creep
      • slow downward progression of movement
      • Low grade slope
      • Gradient, water (cohesive but also too much causes to slide), vegetation, expansion of materials e.g. clay
      • rounding of ridges in the landscape
    • Solifluction
      • slow gradual mass wasting
      • Downslope
      • periglacial environment, freezing and thawing are regular occurrences, water-saturated sediment, more impermeable = more prone to solifluction
      • Lobes
    • EarthFlow
      • downslope viscous flow
      • Moves under pull of gravity
      • clay, fine sand andsilt, and fine-grained pyroclastic material, gravity,higher the water content is, the higher the velocity will be
      • lobe-shaped landform
    • Mudflow
      • mvery rapid to extremely rapid surging flow
      • able to travel farther and across lower slope angles
      • Heavy rainfall, snowmelt, or high levels of ground water flowing through cracked bedrock, areas with destroyed vegitation
    • Slide
      • section of soil or rock suddenly gives way and moves down a slope
      • Downslope
      • Translational slides move along a flat slippery zone.
      • Rotational slides move along a concave (bowl shaped) slippery zone.
      • he slippery zone is often made up of wet sediment
    • Slump
      • coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope
      • Slumps frequently form due to removal of a slope base, either from natural or manmade processes. Stream or wave erosion, as well as road construction are common instigators for slumping.
      • Causes of slumping include earthquake shocks, thorough wetting, freezing and thawing, undercutting, and loading of a slope.
      • Thorough wetting is a common cause
    • Rockfall
      • quantities of rock falling freely from a cliff face
      • natural downward motion of a detached block
      • Favourable geology and climate are the principal causal mechanisms of rockfall, factors that include intact condition of the rock mass, discontinuities within the rockmass, weathering susceptibility, ground and surface water, freeze-thaw, root-wedging, and external stresses.
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