mass transport- animals

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  • Created on: 23-01-19 17:27
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  • mass transport- animals
    • transport in blood
      • Haemoglobin consists of four subunits each with a haem group which contains iron. Each of them are able to bind to a single oxygen molecule (2 oxygen atoms).
        • Oxygen will associate/bind with the haem group and dissociate depending on the Partial Pressures (PP) and metabolic rate.
          • At low PP, Haemoglobin has a low affinity for oxygen e.g. in the bodily tissues.
          • At high PP haemoglobin will have a high affinity for oxygen e.g. in the lungs capillaries
            • Foetal haemoglobin has a slightly higher affinity for oxygen to ensure it gets enough through the placenta.
          • graph
            • the Bohr effect- haemoglobin has a high affinity for H+ ions than oxygen. during CO2 transport, H+ ions are released. this means that where lots of CO2 is produced lots of Oxygen it dissociated and replaced with H+.
    • the heart
      • Image
      • Right atrium- receives deoxygenated blood from bodily tissues.         Left atrium- receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
      • right ventricle- pumps blood to lungs in the pulmonary circuit               Left ventricle- pumps blood to body in systemic circuit. has thicker muscle than right therefore greater pressure.
      • septum- muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles.
      • Tri and Bicuspid valves- prevent backflow of blood, tendons. known as AV. from ventricles to atria.   Semilunar valves- prevnt flow from artites back into ventriles.
      • Cardiac muscle- branching fibres made of myofibril tissue that have many mitochondria for energy to contract. Intercalated discs separate the muscle cells and consist of contractile units called sarcomeres.
      • coronary arteries- delivers nutrients and oxygen to heart. when constricted, may cause angina or heart attack.
      • cardiac cycle
        • Diastole- atria and ventricle are relaxed.
        • Atrial systole- atria contracts and ventricle I diastole
        • ventricular systole- ventricles contract and atria in diastole.
      • valves
        • Atrio-ventricular valves- high pressure in atria opens valves. blood flows into ventricles (atria diastole). tendons keep valve shut when pressure in ventricle is high to prevent backflow.
          • cycle graph
        • semilunar valves- before ventricle systole the pressure in the arteries is higher than the ventricles and SL are shut. this raises the blood pressure in the ventricle and the valve opens. pressure in the arteries cause the vales to close.
      • Blood vessels
        • Veins
          • everything is much thinner than the arteries apart from the endothelium- has valves die to much lower pressure
        • Arteries
          • elastic wall, small lumen, no valves and high pressure- muscles to squeeze blood around the body. not all oxygenated blood (pulmonary artery).
        • capillaries
          • 1 cell thick made of endothelial cells. site of exchange.
    • circulatory systems
      • single e.g. fish- blood flows through heart once- the pressure drops as blood passes through exchange surface therefore rate of delivery is limited.
      • double- blood flows through heart twice for each complete circuit- mammals- blood pressure can be lower for pulmonary circuit and higher for systemic circuit.
      • open circuit- blood not always held in vessles and moves through body cavities. lower pressure and movement may effect blood flow- e.g. insects.
      • closed circuit- tissue fluid bathes cells- blood always in vessels. higher pressure. More efficient way to deliver oxygen and remove waste. it is independent of movement.
        • formation of tissue fluid- the hydrostatic pressure from the contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood against the walls of capillaries pushing water out at the arterial end. at the venous end, oncotic pressure and low HS pressure means water and solutes drain back into the capillaries. the rest drains into the lymphatic system.


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