- dominated english historiography from the 1920's-70's
- Shift the focus from constitutional issues (ie away from the idea of it being a struggle between king and parliament over who should have the right to govern).
- They emphasise the role of class conflict and a rising bourgeois class (middle class) who challenge the way the country is run and provoke hostilities.
- Saw the civil war as an inevitable political crisis brought on as the feudal monarchy defended its privileges against the gentry and the new economic power
- saw parliament as the voice of rising gentry and "middling sort" determined to break down existing political barriers to their economic progress
- RH Tawney and Christopher Hill
- Took a long term view of the ECW- the rise of parliament at the expense of crown