MMBFD #5 Threats Resulting from Alternatives to Marriage and Conventional MarriageS: (D. Decline Fertility Rates and Birth Rates)

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  • Threats Resulting from Alternatives to Marriage and Conventional Marriages:                              (D. Decline Fertility Rates and Birth Rates)
    • Morgan (2003)
      • Social Trends (2006) - say this fell to 1.63 in 2001, it then went up to 1.77 in 2004,
      • This lead to a baby boom peak in 1964 to 2.94, but by 1995 it had dropped again to 1.77.
      • In 2010 it had risen again to 1.06 in Northern Ireland, 2 in England, 1.98 in Wales and 1.75 Scotland (Office for National Statics 2011)
      • This was affected by the war, many people delayed having children or getting married but after there was a baby boom.
      • One influence on this was women having children later, social trends (2006) suggests that in 1971 the average of mother at first birth was 23.7  but had risen to 27.1 in 2004; in 2009 it was just under 29 years.
      • In the 1870's around 5 children per woman were born but this declined to just 2 in the 1930's.
      • The later women leave it before they have their first children, the fewer fertile years they have remaining, making it more likely that they will have less children
      • Points out that the total fertility rates (the number of children born per women of childbearing age) have fallen.
    • Morgan (2003)
      • Argues that the decline in fertility could be one of the reasons as a decline of family life
    • However some argue that there is nothing surprising in a decline in the birth rate and that is does not necessarily mean a decline I family life.
    • Geographers argue that the decline can be seen as part of a demographic change that links to developed societies because of the access to:
      • Desire for material goods and the costs of raising children
      • Contraception, sterilisation, abortion
      • Women in paid work
      • Decline in death rate of children, so less pressure to have more in case one dies.
      • Conclusion:
        • This means without immigration, the population declines, since there are more deaths than births.
        • This decline does not indicate a reduction in family life, it could suggest that families because of fewer children become more child centred.


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