African Americans Marcus Garvey (individual)

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 07-05-17 16:00
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  • Marcus Garvey (individual)
    • Marcus Moziah Garvey
    • Born in Jamaica
    • Politically radicalised by support for printers' strike when he was an apprentice
    • Travelled in central America and studied in London
    • Universal ***** Improvement Association (UNIA)
      • In Jamaica
      • 1912
    • Corresponded with Booker T. Washington
    • Wanted to set up industrial institute in Jamaica
    • Black Star Line
      • 1916
      • Set up in USA whilst there to raise funds
    • Strong believer in pan-Africanism and separate African state
    • Like Washington, saw importance of economic development and set up ***** Factories Corporation to promote manufacture and trade among Africans
    • Speeches drew large crowds and stressed proud African traditions and inherent strength and worth of Africans.
    • Claimed UNIA had 4 million members, making it largest of organisations
    • Opposed by Du Bois, thought effort should be focused on equal rights within USA and attempting to integrate African Americans and secure justice and equality for them - not stressing a separate identity
    • Commercial schemes collapsed, accused of and imprisoned for fraud.
    • Returned to Jamaica and later planned scheme whereby 12 million AAs would be taken back to Liberia, state established for former slaves  on west coast of Africa.
      • This came to nothing and died in London in 1940
    • Following should be factored in when considering impact of Garvey on civil rights:
      • Garvey's slogan 'African for the Africans at home and abroad' and his glorification of Africanism in some ways prefigured Black Power, but his eccentricity makes him a lone figure.
      • Claimed  God' and Jesus were black and set himself up as President of Africa with sort of Napoleonic aristocracy of dukes, ceremonies and parades.
      • He collected sum of $10m and attracted very large amounts of support
      • Because economic ventures failed, and because of his imprisonment and later schemes, he had been seen as an isolated and bizarre figure, but this was not view of many contemporaries
      • His organisation was not matched by anything before 1919 and not again until mass movements of 1960s


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