Fibre/ yarn manufacture

  • Created by: Emmy sale
  • Created on: 21-05-15 11:32
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  • Manufacture of fibres and yarns
    • Fibre to yarn...
      • 1) fibres are harvested (e.g. cotton or wool etc) They are dried and much of the trash removed
        • Ginning= seperation of seeds and fibres
        • wool= sheered off sheep
      • 2) 'classing'= decide the quality of the fibres. The 'classer' judges the samples by hand and eye. Value depends on: length of fibre, colour, feel and amount of remaining trash
        • Once quality of bale is decided, the price is set and it is taken to market or factory etc.
      • 3) Fibres have to be spun and contents of bale are fed into opening machines that open out into small tufts and remove much of the remaining trash
        • In wool= BLENDING ROOM= where air currents miix different grades of ball to get a desired texture or mixed with other materials like polyester
      • 4) loose fluffy fibres= formed into a long sheet that is wound into a roll called a Lap and fed into a CARDING machine= fibres pass through rollers of thin wires which detangle and make fibres parallel to eachother and forms them into a long rope called silver.
      • 5) several silvers are fed into a DRAWING machine that combines them into a single silver which is eventually drawn into a much finer strand of fibres called roving.
      • Roving= wound onto a bobbin and draw out to its final size on a spinning frame called ring spinning. Here it is twisted into a yarn
        • Spinning= gives the wool strength.
          • Yarn= then woven into fabric
            • Wool finishes= SPIKE ROLLERS= a plush finish or they can have a sheen, flat finish.
              • Then they may undergo a FABRIC FINISH
            • Then they may undergo a FABRIC FINISH
            • Fabric is then dyed and dried
            • CAM= sets the configuration for the waving pattern
              • Fabric is then dyed and dried
    • Bulked Yarns
      • yarn= individual fibres have been treated so that they do not follow a linear path; air spaces are developed within the yarn, leading to increased lift.
    • Fancy Yarns
      • Different coloured fibres can be blended together then spun into one yarn. Colour can be applied by printing or dyeing pattern into roving or yarn. Spots of coloured fibre can be twisted in with the base yarn
      • Threads of different softness, thickness, weight, colour or fibre content can be twisted together. Raised Textures= done by controlling the amount and direction of twist.
    • Fancy Yarns: Formation
      • BOUCLE= compound yarn created by a folding process, which results in wavy and looped textured surface to the yarn
        • Untitled
      • BOURETTE= formed by a folding process of yarns which contain bunches of fibres which can be in regular or irregular intervals and can be in different colours. The bunching of loops of fibres may be formed during the carding, spinning or folding processes.
      • CHENILLE= constructed by weaving a fabric into a leno-effect woven structure with soft twisted yarns as the weft or filling yarns. The fabric is then cut out length -wise into narrow stips, creating chenille yarns
      • D.SLUB= constructed from single or folded yarns. There are long thick areas of staple fibres following the slubs, which are placed at regular intervals along the yarns


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