Managing volcanic hazards

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  • Managing Volcanic Hazards
    • Modify Vulnerability
      • Community prepared
        • Predication and warning
          • Forecasting eruptions. Record of past eruptions, only 20% volcanoes being monitored at present time and mainly in MEDC's such as USA which have researchers, technology and cash. Records not complete though. Sakurajima, Japan is closely monitored
        • Evacuations
          • Most important method today.  Could be long term, people need to know how to behave/ risks. e.g. 5000 residents evacuated 3 times in 8 months in Montserrat
      • Land- use planning
        • Once agreed hazard map is done. hard to predict long term. US hazard programme, lava flow hazards mapped in Hawaii used as basis for land use planning.
      • Volcanic Hazard Mapping
        • Places with less money, look for signs  instead e.g. steam releases. Do hazard assessment and predict what will happen. However interpretations may differ, causing delay etc.
    • Modify the loss
      • Insurance
        • Indonesia developed high level of hazard mitigation. Monitors volcanoes and plans how aid will be used.
      • Aid
        • Technical aid supplied by MEDC for monitoring equipment. Financial aid used during and after event. Government must be willing to ask for and accept from other nations.
    • Modify the event
      • Environmental control
        • Water spray
          • Sea water sprays were successfully used to cool lava flows in 1973 eruption of Eldafell, Iceland to protect harbour.
        • Explosions
          • Explosives used with some success in 1983 eruption of Etna when 30% of slow moving lava was diverted from its course.
        • Artificial mounds
          • Proposed to protect Hilo, Hawaii from future lava flows. In Indonesia, some villages  have these to enable villagers to escape to higher ground (adequate warning needed so it's effective).
        • Draining crate lakes
          • A tunnel through the crater wall of Kelut volcano, Java, has also been tried to drain the crater lake and reduce the risk of lahars forming.
        • Lahar barriers
          • Artificial barriers used to protect against secondary hazards of lahars, which follow well- defined routes.
      • Hazard resistant design
        • Ash fallout has largest impact, design may help reduce this. Weight of ash on roof can cause it to collapse so strong design with steep slopes e.g. Hawaii timber houses allow residents to move homes.




This really helped with my 20 Marker! Thank you :)

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