WATER - Managing water supply + case studies (Singapore & MBC)

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  • Managing water supply
    • SINGAPORE
      • Adopted a holistic approach to meet a 6 million demand.
        • 1. Collect EVERY DROP of water (since 2003 per capita consumption fallen from 165L per day to 150L per day).
        • 2. re-use water endlessly - has cutting-edge technology to reuse grey-water.
        • 3. desalination - 2 plants meet 25% of water demand.
      • However, they import water from MALAYSIA
    • MERSEY BASIN CAMPAIGN
      • aim to bring environmental improvements to River Mersey, Manchester ship canal and neighbouring rivers.
      • encourage water front regeneration and improve water quality since 1985.
      • PLAYERS - United Utilities, Local Councils and RSPB.
      • rebranding the river also rebrands Liverpool and Manchester as cities of art.
      • COST - £2.5bn
      • Land prices increased
      • Gentrification leads to pollution
      • uneven distribution of water whereby money = power.
      • Increased demand
    • Hard engineering schemes (require capital and technology).
      • WATER TRANSFERS
        • the diversion of water from one drainage basin to another
          • either by diverting a river or constructing a canal to transfer the water.
        • CHINA's South-North Transfer Project
        • Source area- experiences 60% reduced flow.
      • MEGA-DAMS
        • 60% of major rivers impeded by dams
        • THE NILE, ASWAN HIGH DAM
        • High Evaporation losses from the water surface
          • disruption of downstream sediment transport leading to EROSION
      • DE-SALINATION (requires advanced technology and energy).
        • Dissolved particles in sea water are fully removed to make water suitable for human use.
        • SAUDI ARABIA, UAE already started this.
        • using reverse osmosis and carbon nanotube membranes.
    • Sustainable water management
      • aims to: minimise wastage, ensure safe water access, guarantee an equal distribution.
      • SMART IRRIGATION
        • high priority. sprinkler systems replaced by automated spray tech and drip systems.
      • HYDRO-PONICS
        • growing crops in CO2 and temperature controlled green houses - plants are drip-fed nutrients without soil.
      • RECYCLING OF GREY WATER
        • produces water for agricultural use but not human consumption
      • RAINWATER HARVESTING
        • where people collect rainwater and store it in butts.
      • FILTRATION TECH-NOLOGY
        • there is little water which cannot be purified - it is effective.
      • RESTORATION
        • restoring damaged rivers, lakes and wetlands so they can play their role  in the H cycle.
    • Integrated drainage basin management (IWRM)
      • ensure environmental quality
      • water is used with maximum efficiency
      • an even distribution
      • Works well at community level, but not so well at larger river basins  (Nile).

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