Managing biodiversity- CAMPFIRE, (world) biosphere reserves and MEA

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  • Managing biodiversity
    • Sustainable management strategies
      • CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe
        • Helps provide legal ways for communities to raise money by using local, natural resources in a sustainable way; now actively protect wildlife seeing it as a valuable asset
          • 90%+ of CAMPFIRE's income is from trophy hunting
            • Through CAMPFIRE, foreign visitors buy licenses to hunt wildlife within certain quotas, whilst keeping wildlife numbers at sustainable limits
              • The profits from these licenses and the sale of meat and skins is ploughed back into the local community.
        • Threats to biodiversity
          • The number of elephant species has increased rapidly from 4,000 in 1900 to 64,000 in 1990 (twice the number the country can sustainably support).
            • Some species are suffering genetic problems from inbreeding
              • Some animal species have prospered so much in the protected areas that they're causing serious environmental damage such as by destroying crops.
            • Disadvantages:
              • Many local people were evicted from their homes when the parks were created
                • Animals frequently roam outside park boundaries, destroying crops and killing livestock and sometimes people.
                • Elephants are responsible for  up to 75% of all wildlife crop damage.
                  • Often results in illegal hunting
        • Today 12% of Zimbabwe is protected as conservation areas/national parks.
        • Management strategies:
          • CAMPFIRE is a natural resource management programme designed to assist rural development and conservation.
            • Encourages local communities to make their own decisions about wildlife management and control- helps them manage natural resources in a sustainable way
              • Tourism development has improved the quality of life for many communities.
        • Advantages:
          • Communal lands act as game corridors between existing National Parks , protecting the genetic diversity of wild species.
            • Creates jobs- local people are trained and become involved as environmental educators
              • Prompts environmental education and promotes the benefits of wildlife conservation to communities
                • 80% of the income is given directly to local communities to build new schools, wells and health clinics..
    • (World) Biosphere Reserves
      • Management strategies:
        • Ascension Islands "hope spot"
          • The government is to create a marine reserve almost as big as the UK in the Atlantic waters of Ascension Island.
            • The latest reserve at Ascension Island is said to hold some of the largest Marlin in the world one of the largest populations of green turtles, big colonies of tropical seabirds.
              • There remains a far cry from the 30% recommended by scientists to conserve species.
              • Just over 1/2 the protected area will be closed to fishing
                • The fishery in the other 1/2 will be policed under a grant of £300,000 from the Louis Bacon Foundation.
      • Galapagos Islands:
        • 1/2 waters now closed for fishing
          • Patrol boats now roam the seas
            • Sniffer dogs to detect any illegal export of shark fin
      • Disadvantages
        • Some countries don't have finances to fully monitor or manage
          • Establishing a biosphere reserve poses an enormous challenge e.g. a committee to plan and coordinate all the activities that will take place there.
            • Pressures from development may be difficult to control
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (create an assessment of biodiversity loss in world's ecosystems)
    • Needed as we needed a starting point, globally to evaluate our ecosystems and their conservation
      • Management strategies:
        • 2001 by UNEP and took 5 years to complete including 1360 exports from 95 countries.
    • Advantages
      • Huge amounts of data collected which was analysed in great detail on a world scale for the first time we were able to identify areas of greater threat
        • E.g. IUCN Red List created of mammalian, bird and amphibian species under threat from extinction.
          • Disadvantages
            • Time-consuming, now out-of-date


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